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      Gender stereotype of early adolescents and its influencing factors

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          Abstract

          Objective To explore the gender stereotype in early adolescence and the potential influencing factors.

          Methods Stratified cluster sampling method was adopted to recruit students of grade 6–8 in three middle schools of Shanghai during November to December, 2017. Students were surveyed anonymously using Computer Assisted Self-Interview approach regarding geder stereotype and associated factors.

          Results Average gender stereotype score was (3.32±0.75), with boys (3.43±0.75) higher than the girls(3.20±0.72) ( t = 6.37, P<0.05). The ”agreement” proportion was highest among gender stereotypes items which reflect personality characteristics such as ”it’ s important for boy to be strong and determined” "girls should be like a lady” and "girls were expected to be submissive” (60.99%, 50.79%, 43.95%), and the "agreement" proportion among boys increased with age, while decreased in girls. Boys who had sisters or recent bullying behaviors showed more gender stereotype [ β (95% CI) =0.19(0.05-0.33), 0.39(0.12-0.67)]. Girls whose parents allowed to go to opposite sex homes alone had less gender stereotype, however, the gender stereotype became stronger when girls had more female peers [ β(95%CI) = -0.22(-0.41--0.03), 0.04(0.00-0.07)].

          Conclusion The young adolescents, especially boys, show certain level of gender stereotype. The normal heterosexual friendships and safe campus environments would help promote young adolescents to establish equal gender beliefs.

          Abstract

          【摘要】 目的 探索青春期早期青少年性别刻板印象情况及影响因素, 为正确引导青春早期青少年形成正确的社会 性别观念提供依据。 方法 采取分层整群抽样的方法, 于2017年11一12月对上海市3所初中六至八年级全体学生进行 平板电脑辅助的匿名问卷调查, 调查内容包括性别刻板印象及相关影响因素。 结果 青春期早期的青少年性别刻板特征 量表平均得分为 (3.32±0.75)分, 男生 (3.43±0.75)较女生更为刻板 (3.20±0.72)( t = 6.37, P<0.05)。“表现出坚强、坚定对 男孩来说很重要, 即使内心很紧张”“女孩应该像个淑女避免大声说话”与“女孩被期望是顺从谦虚的”等人格特征方面的 性别刻板印象条目回答“同意”的比例分别为60.99%, 50.79%, 43.95%, 且随着年龄增长, 男生赞同的比例逐渐增高, 女生 逐渐降低。多元线性回归分析显示, 有姐妹、近期欺凌过他人的男生性别印象更为刻板[ β值(95% CI)分别为0.19(0.05〜 0.33)、0.39(0.12〜0.67)];父母有时或经常允许去异性家的女生性别印象较不刻板, 而朋友中女性同伴居多的女生性别印 象更为刻板化[ β值(95%a)分别为-0.22(-0.41〜-0.03)、0.04(0.00〜0.07)]。 结论 青春期早期的青少年存在一定程度 的性别刻板印象, 男生更甚。正常的异性交往、安全的校园环境可能有助于青少年建立平等的社会性别观念。

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          CJSH
          Chinese Journal of School Health
          Chinese Journal of School Health (China )
          1000-9817
          01 August 2020
          01 August 2020
          : 41
          : 8
          : 1185-1188
          Affiliations
          [1] 1Public Health School, Fudan University, Shanghai (200032), China
          Author notes
          *Corresponding author: Lou Chaohua, E-mail: louchaohua60@ 123456163.com
          Article
          j.cnki.1000-9817.2020.08.017
          10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2020.08.017
          0c9b2b11-faa4-4b1b-aa4f-e44c9d2502dd
          © 2020 Chinese Journal of School Health

          This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

          Product
          Self URI (journal-page): http://www.cjsh.org.cn
          Categories
          Journal Article

          Ophthalmology & Optometry,Pediatrics,Nutrition & Dietetics,Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry,Public health
          Adolescent,Mental health,Stereotyping,Puberty,Regression analysis

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