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      Integrative descriptions of two new Macrobiotus species (Tardigrada, Eutardigrada, Macrobiotidae) from Mississippi (USA) and Crete (Greece)

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      Zoosystematics and Evolution

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          In this paper, we describe two new Macrobiotus species from Mississippi (USA) and Crete (Greece) by means of integrative taxonomy. Detailed morphological data from light and scanning electron microscopy, as well as molecular data (sequences of four genetic markers: 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, ITS-2 and COI), are provided in support of the descriptions of the new species. Macrobiotus annewintersae sp. nov. from Mississippi belongs to the Macrobiotus persimilis complex (Macrobiotus clade B) and exhibits a unique egg processes morphology, similar only to Macrobiotus anemone Meyer, Domingue & Hinton, 2014, but mainly differs from that species by the presence of eyes, granulation on all legs, dentate lunulae on legs IV, and of bubble-like structures within the tentacular arms that are present on the distal portion of the egg processes. Macrobiotus rybaki sp. nov. from Crete belongs to the Macrobiotus clade A and is most similar to Macrobiotus dariae Pilato & Bertolani, 2004, Macrobiotus noemiae Roszkowska & Kaczmarek, 2019, Macrobiotus santoroi Pilato & D’Urso, 1976, and Macrobiotus serratus Bertolani, Guidi & Rebecchi, 1996, but differs from them mainly in the morphological details of its egg processes and chorion reticulation, but also by a number of morphometric characters. In light of the specific morphology of the egg processes of Macrobiotus annewintersae sp. nov. and Macrobiotus anemone, that are equipped with tentacular arms instead of proper terminal disc, we also provide an updated definition of the Macrobiotus persimilis complex.

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          MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 7.0 for Bigger Datasets.

          We present the latest version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software, which contains many sophisticated methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. In this major upgrade, Mega has been optimized for use on 64-bit computing systems for analyzing larger datasets. Researchers can now explore and analyze tens of thousands of sequences in Mega The new version also provides an advanced wizard for building timetrees and includes a new functionality to automatically predict gene duplication events in gene family trees. The 64-bit Mega is made available in two interfaces: graphical and command line. The graphical user interface (GUI) is a native Microsoft Windows application that can also be used on Mac OS X. The command line Mega is available as native applications for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. They are intended for use in high-throughput and scripted analysis. Both versions are available from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput.

             Robert Edgar (2004)
            We describe MUSCLE, a new computer program for creating multiple alignments of protein sequences. Elements of the algorithm include fast distance estimation using kmer counting, progressive alignment using a new profile function we call the log-expectation score, and refinement using tree-dependent restricted partitioning. The speed and accuracy of MUSCLE are compared with T-Coffee, MAFFT and CLUSTALW on four test sets of reference alignments: BAliBASE, SABmark, SMART and a new benchmark, PREFAB. MUSCLE achieves the highest, or joint highest, rank in accuracy on each of these sets. Without refinement, MUSCLE achieves average accuracy statistically indistinguishable from T-Coffee and MAFFT, and is the fastest of the tested methods for large numbers of sequences, aligning 5000 sequences of average length 350 in 7 min on a current desktop computer. The MUSCLE program, source code and PREFAB test data are freely available at http://www.drive5. com/muscle.
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              MrBayes 3.2: Efficient Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference and Model Choice Across a Large Model Space

              Since its introduction in 2001, MrBayes has grown in popularity as a software package for Bayesian phylogenetic inference using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. With this note, we announce the release of version 3.2, a major upgrade to the latest official release presented in 2003. The new version provides convergence diagnostics and allows multiple analyses to be run in parallel with convergence progress monitored on the fly. The introduction of new proposals and automatic optimization of tuning parameters has improved convergence for many problems. The new version also sports significantly faster likelihood calculations through streaming single-instruction-multiple-data extensions (SSE) and support of the BEAGLE library, allowing likelihood calculations to be delegated to graphics processing units (GPUs) on compatible hardware. Speedup factors range from around 2 with SSE code to more than 50 with BEAGLE for codon problems. Checkpointing across all models allows long runs to be completed even when an analysis is prematurely terminated. New models include relaxed clocks, dating, model averaging across time-reversible substitution models, and support for hard, negative, and partial (backbone) tree constraints. Inference of species trees from gene trees is supported by full incorporation of the Bayesian estimation of species trees (BEST) algorithms. Marginal model likelihoods for Bayes factor tests can be estimated accurately across the entire model space using the stepping stone method. The new version provides more output options than previously, including samples of ancestral states, site rates, site d N /d S rations, branch rates, and node dates. A wide range of statistics on tree parameters can also be output for visualization in FigTree and compatible software.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zoosystematics and Evolution
                ZSE
                Pensoft Publishers
                1860-0743
                1435-1935
                May 19 2021
                May 19 2021
                : 97
                : 1
                : 281-306
                Article
                10.3897/zse.97.65280
                © 2021

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