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      Association of changes in cardiorespiratory fitness with health-related quality of life in young adults with mobility disability: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of mobile app versus supervised training


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          Young adults with mobility disability report lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) than their able-bodied peers. This study aims to examine potential differences between the effects of mobile app versus supervised training and the association of cardiorespiratory fitness change with HRQoL in young adults with mobility disability.


          This is a secondary analysis of a parallel randomized controlled trial of a mobile app ( n = 55) and a supervised health program ( n = 55) that was provided for 12 weeks to 110 adults (18–45 years) with self-perceived mobility disability. Recruitment took place at rehabilitation centers in Stockholm, Sweden. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated from the results of a submaximal cycle ergometer test and HRQoL was assessed with the SF-36 questionnaire. Follow up was at 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 1-year and all examinations were performed by blinded investigators. Between group differences of changes in HRQoL at follow up were estimated in intention-to-treat analysis using linear regression models. Crude and adjusted mixed-effects models estimated the associations between cardiorespiratory fitness change and HRQoL. Stratified analysis by intervention group was also performed.


          In total, 40/55 from the mobile app group and 49/55 from the supervised training group were included in the intention to treat analysis. No significant differences were observed between the effects of the two interventions on HRQoL. In both crude and adjusted models, cardiorespiratory fitness change was associated with the general health (adjusted β = 1.30, 95% CI: 0.48, 2.13) and emotional role functioning (adjusted β = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.11, 2.25) domains of SF-36. After stratification, the associations with general health (adjusted β = 1.88, 95% CI: 0.87, 2.90) and emotional role functioning (adjusted β = 1.37, 95% CI: 0.18, 2.57) were present only in the supervised group.


          This study found positive associations between cardiorespiratory fitness change and HRQoL in young adults with mobility disability who received supervised training. The effects of mobile app versus supervised training on HRQoL remain unclear.

          Trial registration

          International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) registry ISRCTN22387524; Prospectively registered on February 4th, 2018.

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          Most cited references50

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          The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36). I. Conceptual framework and item selection.

          A 36-item short-form (SF-36) was constructed to survey health status in the Medical Outcomes Study. The SF-36 was designed for use in clinical practice and research, health policy evaluations, and general population surveys. The SF-36 includes one multi-item scale that assesses eight health concepts: 1) limitations in physical activities because of health problems; 2) limitations in social activities because of physical or emotional problems; 3) limitations in usual role activities because of physical health problems; 4) bodily pain; 5) general mental health (psychological distress and well-being); 6) limitations in usual role activities because of emotional problems; 7) vitality (energy and fatigue); and 8) general health perceptions. The survey was constructed for self-administration by persons 14 years of age and older, and for administration by a trained interviewer in person or by telephone. The history of the development of the SF-36, the origin of specific items, and the logic underlying their selection are summarized. The content and features of the SF-36 are compared with the 20-item Medical Outcomes Study short-form.
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            Health promotion by social cognitive means.

            This article examines health promotion and disease prevention from the perspective of social cognitive theory. This theory posits a multifaceted causal structure in which self-efficacy beliefs operate together with goals, outcome expectations, and perceived environmental impediments and facilitators in the regulation of human motivation, behavior, and well-being. Belief in one's efficacy to exercise control is a common pathway through which psychosocial influences affect health functioning. This core belief affects each of the basic processes of personal change--whether people even consider changing their health habits, whether they mobilize the motivation and perseverance needed to succeed should they do so, their ability to recover from setbacks and relapses, and how well they maintain the habit changes they have achieved. Human health is a social matter, not just an individual one. A comprehensive approach to health promotion also requires changing the practices of social systems that have widespread effects on human health.
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              Cardiorespiratory fitness as a quantitative predictor of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in healthy men and women: a meta-analysis.

              Epidemiological studies have indicated an inverse association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and coronary heart disease (CHD) or all-cause mortality in healthy participants. To define quantitative relationships between CRF and CHD events, cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, or all-cause mortality in healthy men and women. A systematic literature search was conducted for observational cohort studies using MEDLINE (1966 to December 31, 2008) and EMBASE (1980 to December 31, 2008). The Medical Subject Headings search terms used included exercise tolerance, exercise test, exercise/physiology, physical fitness, oxygen consumption, cardiovascular diseases, myocardial ischemia, mortality, mortalities, death, fatality, fatal, incidence, or morbidity. Studies reporting associations of baseline CRF with CHD events, CVD events, or all-cause mortality in healthy participants were included. Two authors independently extracted relevant data. CRF was estimated as maximal aerobic capacity (MAC) expressed in metabolic equivalent (MET) units. Participants were categorized as low CRF ( or = 10.9 METs). CHD and CVD were combined into 1 outcome (CHD/CVD). Risk ratios (RRs) for a 1-MET higher level of MAC and for participants with lower vs higher CRF were calculated with a random-effects model. Data were obtained from 33 eligible studies (all-cause mortality, 102 980 participants and 6910 cases; CHD/CVD, 84 323 participants and 4485 cases). Pooled RRs of all-cause mortality and CHD/CVD events per 1-MET higher level of MAC (corresponding to 1-km/h higher running/jogging speed) were 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-0.90) and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.82-0.88), respectively. Compared with participants with high CRF, those with low CRF had an RR for all-cause mortality of 1.70 (95% CI, 1.51-1.92; P < .001) and for CHD/CVD events of 1.56 (95% CI, 1.39-1.75; P < .001), adjusting for heterogeneity of study design. Compared with participants with intermediate CRF, those with low CRF had an RR for all-cause mortality of 1.40 (95% CI, 1.32-1.48; P < .001) and for CHD/CVD events of 1.47 (95% CI, 1.35-1.61; P < .001), adjusting for heterogeneity of study design. Better CRF was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality and CHD/CVD. Participants with a MAC of 7.9 METs or more had substantially lower rates of all-cause mortality and CHD/CVD events compared with those with a MAC of less 7.9 METs.

                Author and article information

                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BioMed Central (London )
                16 November 2020
                16 November 2020
                : 20
                GRID grid.4714.6, ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0626, Department of Global Public Health, , Karolinska Institutet, ; Stockholm, Sweden
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100006636, Forskningsrådet om Hälsa, Arbetsliv och Välfärd;
                Award ID: 2010-01828
                Award Recipient :
                Research Article
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                © The Author(s) 2020

                Public health
                cardiorespiratory fitness,mobile app,supervised training,mobility disability,health related quality of life,hrqol,young adults


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