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      Comparative effects of sulfuric and nitric acid rain on litter decomposition and soil microbial community in subtropical plantation of Yangtze River Delta region.

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          Abstract

          Acid rain is mainly caused by dissolution of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere, and has a significant negative effect on ecosystems. The relative composition of acid rain is changing gradually from sulfuric acid rain (SAR) to nitric acid rain (NAR) with the rapidly growing amount of nitrogen deposition. In this study, we investigated the impact of simulated SAR and NAR on litter decomposition and the soil microbial community over four seasons since March 2015. Results first showed that the effects of acid rain on litter decomposition and soil microbial were positive in the early period of the experiment, except for SAR on soil microbes. Second, soil pH with NAR decreased more rapidly with the amount of acid rain increased in summer than with SAR treatments. Only strongly acid rain (both SAR and NAR) was capable of depressing litter decomposition and its inhibitory effect was stronger on leaf than on fine root litter. Meanwhile, NAR had a higher inhibitory effect on litter decomposition than SAR. Third, in summer, autumn and winter, PLFAs were negatively impacted by the increased acidity level resulting from both SAR and NAR. However, higher acidity level of NAR (pH=2.5) had the strongest inhibitory impact on soil microbial activity, especially in summer. In addition, Gram-negative bacteria (cy19:0) and fungi (18:1ω9) were more sensitive to both SAR and NAR, and actinomycetes was more sensitive to SAR intensity. Finally, soil total carbon, total nitrogen and pH were the most important soil property factors affecting soil microbial activity, and high microbial indices (fungi/bacteria) with high soil pH. Our results suggest that the ratio of SO42- to NO3- in acid rain is an important factor which could affect litter decomposition and soil microbial in subtropical forest of China.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Sci Total Environ
          The Science of the total environment
          Elsevier BV
          1879-1026
          0048-9697
          Dec 01 2017
          : 601-602
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Co-Innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Soil and Water Conservation and Ecological Restoration, Nanjing Forestry University, 159 Longpan Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210037, China; Department of Biology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124, USA.
          [2 ] Department of Biology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124, USA.
          [3 ] Co-Innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Soil and Water Conservation and Ecological Restoration, Nanjing Forestry University, 159 Longpan Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210037, China.
          [4 ] Co-Innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Soil and Water Conservation and Ecological Restoration, Nanjing Forestry University, 159 Longpan Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210037, China. Electronic address: zhang8811@njfu.edu.cn.
          Article
          S0048-9697(17)31251-2
          10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.151
          28577402
          0cb96cbf-075d-4f7d-b147-6f3940068d3f
          Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

          Litter decomposition,PLFAs,Soil chemical properties,Soil microbial community,Sulfuric and nitric acid rain

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