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      Pain measurement techniques: spotlight on mechanically ventilated patients

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          Abstract

          Background

          Procedural pain is a frequent problem in intensive care units (ICUs). For that, pain assessment has been increasingly introduced to the ICU professional’s routine, and studies have been developed to show the relevance of measuring pain in critically ill patients.

          Objective

          This review aimed to describe pain measurement techniques for mechanically ventilated adult patients based on evidence and already published.

          Method

          Systematic literature search was performed on PubMed and Google Scholar. Keywords “pain”, “pain measurement”, “intensive care units” and “respiration, artificial” were combined to the Boolean operator AND. No language or publication year was limited in this search. The purpose and method of all papers were analyzed and only studies which described pain assessment in mechanically ventilated patients were included in this review.

          Results

          Objective methods were found in the literature to assess pain in mechanically ventilated adults. Behavioral scales were the most used method for pain measurement in noncommunicative patients. Vital signs were used, but the reliability of this method was questioned. Pupillometry, bispectral index and skin conductance were found and described as pain assessment methods.

          Conclusion

          This review showed that objective measures, as behavioral scales, are the gold standard tools to measure pain intensity in noncommunicative subjects. These data contribute to professionals’ knowledge about ICU pain measurement and emphasize its importance and consequences for adequate pain management.

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          Most cited references 133

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          A protocol of no sedation for critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation: a randomised trial.

          Standard treatment of critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation is continuous sedation. Daily interruption of sedation has a beneficial effect, and in the general intesive care unit of Odense University Hospital, Denmark, standard practice is a protocol of no sedation. We aimed to establish whether duration of mechanical ventilation could be reduced with a protocol of no sedation versus daily interruption of sedation. Of 428 patients assessed for eligibility, we enrolled 140 critically ill adult patients who were undergoing mechanical ventilation and were expected to need ventilation for more than 24 h. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio (unblinded) to receive: no sedation (n=70 patients); or sedation (20 mg/mL propofol for 48 h, 1 mg/mL midazolam thereafter) with daily interruption until awake (n=70, control group). Both groups were treated with bolus doses of morphine (2.5 or 5 mg). The primary outcome was the number of days without mechanical ventilation in a 28-day period, and we also recorded the length of stay in the intensive care unit (from admission to 28 days) and in hospital (from admission to 90 days). Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00466492. 27 patients died or were successfully extubated within 48 h, and, as per our study design, were excluded from the study and statistical analysis. Patients receiving no sedation had significantly more days without ventilation (n=55; mean 13.8 days, SD 11.0) than did those receiving interrupted sedation (n=58; mean 9.6 days, SD 10.0; mean difference 4.2 days, 95% CI 0.3-8.1; p=0.0191). No sedation was also associated with a shorter stay in the intensive care unit (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.05-3.23; p=0.0316), and, for the first 30 days studied, in hospital (3.57, 1.52-9.09; p=0.0039), than was interrupted sedation. No difference was recorded in the occurrences of accidental extubations, the need for CT or MRI brain scans, or ventilator-associated pneumonia. Agitated delirium was more frequent in the intervention group than in the control group (n=11, 20%vs n=4, 7%; p=0.0400). No sedation of critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation is associated with an increase in days without ventilation. A multicentre study is needed to establish whether this effect can be reproduced in other facilities. Danish Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, the Fund of Danielsen, the Fund of Kirsten Jensa la Cour, and the Fund of Holger og Ruth Hess. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            The FLACC: a behavioral scale for scoring postoperative pain in young children.

            To evaluate the reliability and validity of the FLACC Pain Assessment Tool which incorporates five categories of pain behaviors: facial expression; leg movement; activity; cry; and consolability. Eighty-nine children aged 2 months to 7 years, (3.0 +/- 2.0 yrs.) who had undergone a variety of surgical procedures, were observed in the Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU). The study consisted of: 1) measuring interrater reliability; 2) testing validity by measuring changes in FLACC scores in response to administration of analgesics; and 3) comparing FLACC scores to other pain ratings. The FLACC tool was found to have high interrater reliability. Preliminary evidence of validity was provided by the significant decrease in FLACC scores related to administration of analgesics. Validity was also supported by the correlation with scores assigned by the Objective Pain Scale (OPS) and nurses' global ratings of pain. The FLACC provides a simple framework for quantifying pain behaviors in children who may not be able to verbalize the presence or severity of pain. Our preliminary data indicates the FLACC pain assessment tool is valid and reliable.
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              Assessing pain in critically ill sedated patients by using a behavioral pain scale.

              To establish the validity and reliability of a new behavioral pain scale (BPS) for critically ill sedated adult patients. Prospective evaluation. Ten-bed trauma and surgical intensive care unit in a university teaching hospital. Thirty mechanically ventilated patients who were receiving analgesia and sedation. Assessments with the BPS were completed consecutively at standardized times (morning, afternoon, night) by pairs of evaluators (nurse and nurse's aide). They collected physiologic parameters and BPS results before and during care procedures: non-nociceptive (group 1, compression stockings application and central venous catheter dressing change), nociceptive (group 2, endotracheal suctioning and mobilization), and retested nociceptive (group 3). The BPS score was the sum of three items that had a range score of 1-4: facial expression, movements of upper limbs, and compliance with mechanical ventilation. Two hundred and sixty nine assessments were completed, including 104, 134, and 31 measurements in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. There was no difference in Ramsay scale scores between the three groups (Ramsay 4-6). Nociceptive stimulations (group 2) resulted in significantly higher BPS values than non-nociceptive ones (group 1, 4.9 vs. 3.5, p <.01), whereas the two groups had comparable BPS values before stimulation (3.1 vs. 3.0). A trend was found in group 2 between the dosage of sedation/analgesia and BPS: the higher the dosage, the lower BPS values and BPS changes to nociceptive stimulation. Group 3 had BPS values similar to group 2 at rest (3.2 vs. 3.2) and during the procedure (4.4 vs. 4.5), with good interrater correlations (r(2) =.71 and.50, respectively). These results indicate that the expression of pain can be scored validly and reliably by using the BPS in sedated, mechanically ventilated patients. Further studies are warranted regarding the utility of the BPS in making clinical decisions about the use of analgesic drugs in the intensive care unit.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2018
                21 November 2018
                : 11
                : 2969-2980
                Affiliations
                Neuroscience Research Laboratory (LAPENE), Department of Physical Therapy, Graduate Program of Health Science, Graduate Program of Physiological Science, Federal University of Sergipe, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil, desantana@ 123456pq.cnpq.br
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Josimari Melo DeSantana, Laboratório de Pesquisa em Neurociência/LAPENE, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Avenida Marechal Rondon, S/n,- Jardim Rosa Elze, CEP: 49100-000, São Cristóvão, Sergipe, Brasil, Tel +55 792 105 1804, Email desantana@ 123456pq.cnpq.br
                Article
                jpr-11-2969
                10.2147/JPR.S151169
                6255280
                © 2018 Azevedo-Santos and DeSantana. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                artificial, respiration, intensive care units, pain measurement, pain

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