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      Pentoxifylline Reduces in vitro Renal Myofibroblast Proliferation and Collagen Secretion

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          Abstract

          Interstitial myofibroblasts (MF) are cells with features of both smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. They have been universally recognized in situations of tubulointerstitial injury, where their presence has been shown to be a marker of disease progression. The objective of this study was to determine if functions of MF relevant to fibrogenesis can be modified in vitro by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor pentoxifylline (PTX). MF were obtained from sub-culture of normal rat kidney explant outgrowths maintained in DMEM + 20% fetal calf serum (FCS), supplemented with antibiotics. Cells were characterized on the basis of growth characteristics and immunohistochemistry. MF constituted >95% of cells at passage 3. Cell culture media was supplemented with the potential antagonist PTX alone (0, 1, 10, 100 μg/ml) and in combination with TGFβ<sub>1</sub> (5 ng/ml). Population kinetics, proliferation and collagen production were determined from cell growth, [<sup>3</sup>H]thymidine incorporation and [<sup>3</sup>H]proline incorporation in collagenous proteins, respectively. Both serum-stimulated population growth and proliferation were reduced in a linear fashion by 1, 10 and 100 μg/ml PTX (all p < 0.05 versus 0 μg/ml). Effect of PTX on cell population growth was however reversible when PTX was removed. Basal collagen secretion was decreased by PTX at 10 and 100 μg/ml (p < 0.05 versus 0 μg/ml), although cell layer collagen remained unchanged. Collagen production (secreted and cell layer) was augmented by 5 ng/ml TGFβ<sub>1</sub>. These effects on collagen production were partially reduced when 100 μg/ml PTX was added. The authors conclude that myofibroblast function can be altered with agonists/antagonists. Attempts to down-regulate fibrogenic functions of MF may therefore offer a valuable therapeutic strategy.

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          Natural inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta protects against scarring in experimental kidney disease.

          The central pathological feature of human kidney disease that leads to kidney failure is the accumulation of extracellular matrix in glomeruli. Overexpression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) underlies the accumulation of pathological matrix in experimental glomerulonephritis. Administration of an antibody raised against TGF-beta to glomerulonephritic rats suppresses glomerular matrix production and prevents matrix accumulation in the injured glomeruli. One of the matrix components induced by TGF-beta, the proteoglycan decorin, can bind TGF-beta and neutralize its biological activity, so decorin may be a natural regulator of TGF-beta (refs 3, 4). We tested whether decorin could antagonize the action of TGF-beta in vivo using the experimental glomerulonephritis model. We report here that administration of decorin inhibits the increased production of extracellular matrix and attenuates manifestations of disease, confirming our hypothesis. On the basis of our results, decorin may eventually prove to be clinically useful in diseases associated with overproduction of TGF-beta.
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            Suppression of experimental glomerulonephritis by antiserum against transforming growth factor beta 1.

            Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the kidney characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix within the damaged glomeruli, impaired filtration and proteinuria. In its progressive form, the disease destroys kidney function leading to uraemia and death, unless dialysis therapy or kidney transplantation is available. The pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis is incompletely understood, but the eliciting factor is thought often to be an immunological injury to mesangial and/or other resident cells in the glomeruli. We have used an animal model of acute mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis to show that this disease is associated with increased production and activity of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1), an inducer of extracellular matrix production. Here we report that administration of anti-TGF-beta 1 at the time of induction of the glomerular disease suppresses the increased production of extracellular matrix and dramatically attenuates histological manifestations of the disease. These results provide direct evidence for a causal role of TGF-beta 1 in the pathogenesis of the experimental disease and suggest a new approach to the therapy of glomerulonephritis.
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              Author and article information

              Journal
              AJN
              Am J Nephrol
              10.1159/issn.0250-8095
              American Journal of Nephrology
              S. Karger AG
              0250-8095
              1421-9670
              2000
              February 2000
              13 January 2000
              : 20
              : 1
              : 82-88
              Affiliations
              Department of Nephrology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Australia
              Article
              13562 Am J Nephrol 2000;20:82–88
              10.1159/000013562
              10644875
              © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Figures: 7, Tables: 1, References: 27, Pages: 7
              Product
              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/13562
              Categories
              Laboratory Investigations

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