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      Current understanding of mdig/MINA in human cancers

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          Mineral dust-induced gene, mdig has recently been identified and is known to be overexpressed in a majority of human cancers and holds predictive power in the poor prognosis of the disease. Mdig is an environmentally expressed gene that is involved in cell proliferation, neoplastic transformation and immune regulation. With the advancement in deciphering the prognostic role of mdig in human cancers, our understanding on how mdig renders a normal cell to undergo malignant transformation is still very limited. This article reviews the current knowledge of the mdig gene in context to human neoplasias and its relation to the clinico-pathologic factors predicting the outcome of the disease in patients. It also emphasizes on the promising role of mdig that can serve as a potential candidate for biomarker discovery and as a therapeutic target in inflammation and cancers. Considering the recent advances in understanding the underlying mechanisms of tumor formation, more preclinical and clinical research is required to validate the potential of using mdig as a novel biological target of therapeutic and diagnostic value.


          Expression level of mdig influences the prognosis of several human cancers especially cancers of the breast and lung. Evaluation of mdig in cancers can offer novel biomarker with potential therapeutic interventions for the early assessment of cancer development in patients.

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          Most cited references 69

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          Mass-spectrometry-based draft of the human proteome.

          Proteomes are characterized by large protein-abundance differences, cell-type- and time-dependent expression patterns and post-translational modifications, all of which carry biological information that is not accessible by genomics or transcriptomics. Here we present a mass-spectrometry-based draft of the human proteome and a public, high-performance, in-memory database for real-time analysis of terabytes of big data, called ProteomicsDB. The information assembled from human tissues, cell lines and body fluids enabled estimation of the size of the protein-coding genome, and identified organ-specific proteins and a large number of translated lincRNAs (long intergenic non-coding RNAs). Analysis of messenger RNA and protein-expression profiles of human tissues revealed conserved control of protein abundance, and integration of drug-sensitivity data enabled the identification of proteins predicting resistance or sensitivity. The proteome profiles also hold considerable promise for analysing the composition and stoichiometry of protein complexes. ProteomicsDB thus enables navigation of proteomes, provides biological insight and fosters the development of proteomic technology.
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            Cell cycle analysis of a cell proliferation-associated human nuclear antigen defined by the monoclonal antibody Ki-67.

            The monoclonal antibody Ki-67 detects a nuclear antigen that is present only in proliferating cells. The aim of the present investigation was to clarify whether the Ki-67 nuclear antigen is restricted in its expression to certain phases of the cell cycle. All experiments consistently showed that the Ki-67 nuclear antigen is present in S, G2, and M phase, but is absent in G0. However, the results concerning Ki-67 antigen expression in G1 phase varied: cells passing the early events of mitogen triggered transition from G0 to G1, i.e., G1T and first G1A, lacked the Ki-67 nuclear antigen, whereas G1 cells after mitosis were constantly Ki-67-positive. This result suggests that after mitosis cells might not follow the same metabolic pathways as G0 cells do when entering G1 for the first time. Therefore, we suggest that the early stages of mitogen stimulation represent initial sequences of proliferation and not parts of the cell cycle. Because our data show that the Ki-67 nuclear antigen is present throughout the cell cycle, immunostaining with monoclonal antibody Ki-67 provides a reliable means of rapidly evaluating the growth fraction of normal and neoplastic human cell populations.
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              IL-21 initiates an alternative pathway to induce proinflammatory T(H)17 cells.

              On activation, naive T cells differentiate into effector T-cell subsets with specific cytokine phenotypes and specialized effector functions. Recently a subset of T cells, distinct from T helper (T(H))1 and T(H)2 cells, producing interleukin (IL)-17 (T(H)17) was defined and seems to have a crucial role in mediating autoimmunity and inducing tissue inflammation. We and others have shown that transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and IL-6 together induce the differentiation of T(H)17 cells, in which IL-6 has a pivotal function in dictating whether T cells differentiate into Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells) or T(H)17 cells. Whereas TGF-beta induces Foxp3 and generates T(reg) cells, IL-6 inhibits the generation of T(reg) cells and induces the production of IL-17, suggesting a reciprocal developmental pathway for T(H)17 and T(reg) cells. Here we show that IL-6-deficient (Il6-/-) mice do not develop a T(H)17 response and their peripheral repertoire is dominated by Foxp3+ T(reg) cells. However, deletion of T(reg) cells leads to the reappearance of T(H)17 cells in Il6-/- mice, suggesting an additional pathway by which T(H)17 cells might be generated in vivo. We show that an IL-2 cytokine family member, IL-21, cooperates with TGF-beta to induce T(H)17 cells in naive Il6-/- T cells and that IL-21-receptor-deficient T cells are defective in generating a T(H)17 response.

                Author and article information

                1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Fei Chen, fchen@
                Genes Cancer
                Genes Cancer
                Genes & Cancer
                Impact Journals LLC
                July 2015
                July 2015
                : 6
                : 7-8
                : 288-302
                Copyright: © 2015 Thakur and Chen

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



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