Background/Aims: Several studies have implicated reactive carbonyl compounds (RCOs), especially those derived from lipid peroxidation, in the development of complications frequently associated with hemodialysis (HD) treatment. However, there is still much unknown regarding the nature and concentration of RCOs in HD patients. This study was designed to evaluate the level of toxic aldehydes in the plasma of HD patients and to determine the extent to which these aldehydes contribute to RCO toxicity among these patients. Methods: 15 aldehydes of the alkanal, alkenal and 4-HO-alkenal type were measured in the plasma of 17 HD patients and 20 healthy controls. In addition, protein modification markers such as carbonyl content (CO), free thiol (SH) and residual free amino groups, as well as amyloid fibrils were also determined. Results: 11 of the 15 aldehydes were significantly elevated in the HD group when compared with the controls. Correlation studies in the HD group revealed high relationships between total alkenals plus total 4-HO-alkenals versus CO, total alkanals versus NH<sub>2</sub>, total aldehydes versus SH, and total 4-HO-alkenals versus fibril. Conclusion: The increased levels of alkanals, alkenals and 4-HO-alkenals of lipid peroxidation in the plasma of HD patients may greatly contribute to the toxicity of RCOs. The pattern of modification of plasma protein by each group of aldehydes may provide new evidence on the in vivo mechanisms of toxicity triggered by these aldehydes on their target molecules.