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      Elevated Levels of Alkanals, Alkenals and 4-HO-Alkenals in Plasma of Hemodialysis Patients

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          Background/Aims: Several studies have implicated reactive carbonyl compounds (RCOs), especially those derived from lipid peroxidation, in the development of complications frequently associated with hemodialysis (HD) treatment. However, there is still much unknown regarding the nature and concentration of RCOs in HD patients. This study was designed to evaluate the level of toxic aldehydes in the plasma of HD patients and to determine the extent to which these aldehydes contribute to RCO toxicity among these patients. Methods: 15 aldehydes of the alkanal, alkenal and 4-HO-alkenal type were measured in the plasma of 17 HD patients and 20 healthy controls. In addition, protein modification markers such as carbonyl content (CO), free thiol (SH) and residual free amino groups, as well as amyloid fibrils were also determined. Results: 11 of the 15 aldehydes were significantly elevated in the HD group when compared with the controls. Correlation studies in the HD group revealed high relationships between total alkenals plus total 4-HO-alkenals versus CO, total alkanals versus NH<sub>2</sub>, total aldehydes versus SH, and total 4-HO-alkenals versus fibril. Conclusion: The increased levels of alkanals, alkenals and 4-HO-alkenals of lipid peroxidation in the plasma of HD patients may greatly contribute to the toxicity of RCOs. The pattern of modification of plasma protein by each group of aldehydes may provide new evidence on the in vivo mechanisms of toxicity triggered by these aldehydes on their target molecules.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis in chronic renal failure.

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            Determination of aldehydes and other lipid peroxidation products in biological samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

            The extremely broad spectrum of the biological effects of aldehydic lipid peroxidation products has necessitated the development of a technique that can quantitate all of the aldehydes formed in biological materials. The proposed method is based on the use of O-(2, 3, 4, 5, 6-pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine hydrochloride (PFBHA.HCl) to form the O-pentafluorobenzyl-oxime (PFB-oxime) derivatives of 22 saturated and unsaturated aldehydes (C2-C12) including hexanal, 4-hydroxy-non-2-enal (HNE), and malondialdehyde (MDA), followed by trimethylsilylation of the hydroxyl group to trimethylsilyl (TMS) ethers. The PFB-oxime-TMS derivatives were analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography-negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NICIMS) with ammonia as reagent gas. Quantitation was achieved using benzaldehyde-ring-D5 as an internal standard in selected ion recording (SIR) mode. Standard curves were linear (r > 0.99) for all individual aldehydes. The detection limit was between 50 and 100 fmol per 1 microliter injected aldehyde. Recovery of all aldehydes from urine, plasma, and tissue homogenate was over 85%, except HNE, trans-2-octenal and trans-2,-cis-6-nonadienal from plasma and tissue sample, which were between 60 and 80%, suggesting these aldehydes may bind to protein and lipid components, especially to SH groups of proteins. The high sensitivity of this method allows the measurement of physiological aldehyde levels in biological samples. The products of aldehyde metabolism can also be measured by this assay.
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              Cytotoxicities of a linoleic acid hydroperoxide and its related aliphatic aldehydes toward cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells


                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                July 2006
                19 July 2006
                : 26
                : 3
                : 299-303
                aDepartment of Clinical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, bDepartment of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Al-Mustansiriya University, cArtificial Kidney Unit, Al-Karama Teaching Hospital, dArtificial Kidney Unit, Al-Yarmuk Teaching Hospital, and eBiochemical Research Department, Iraqi Organization of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq
                94305 Am J Nephrol 2006;26:299–303
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 13, Pages: 5
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/94305
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research


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