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      Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of ES βL Producers Isolated from the Mobile Phones

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          Abstract

          Mobile phones have become an indispensable part of human lives for communication, education, and entertainment activities. This study aims to evaluate the diversity pattern of bacterial contaminants on mobiles and to check antibiotic resistance profiles in 105 samples. The study revealed a contamination of 51% in men and 49% in women, the highest in the 21- to 30-year age group, evidencing the extreme use of mobiles by teenagers. The study observed Gram-negative bacteria (63%) versus Gram-positive bacteria (37%). Overall, Gram-negative bacterial isolates showed the highest sensitivity to antibiotic nitrofurantoin (90%) and the lowest in ampicillin (35%). Gram positive has highest incidence of sensitivity towards tigecycline (100%) and lowest in cefoxitin (20%). ES βL producers were found to be 21.0% and highest being in Klebsiella oxytoca (35%) followed by Klebsiella pneumonia (31%). Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Staphylococcus capitis have been identified on the mobile phones for the very first time. Interestingly, some soil microbes were also isolated and unfortunately found to have some antibiotic resistance like Raoultella ornithinolytica and Sphingomonas paucimobilis. The results revealed that mobiles were contaminated with multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens, and this study also showed that few of the saprophytic soil strains have antibiotic resistance, which can be an alarming situation that needs to be addressed.

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          How long do nosocomial pathogens persist on inanimate surfaces? A systematic review

          Background Inanimate surfaces have often been described as the source for outbreaks of nosocomial infections. The aim of this review is to summarize data on the persistence of different nosocomial pathogens on inanimate surfaces. Methods The literature was systematically reviewed in MedLine without language restrictions. In addition, cited articles in a report were assessed and standard textbooks on the topic were reviewed. All reports with experimental evidence on the duration of persistence of a nosocomial pathogen on any type of surface were included. Results Most gram-positive bacteria, such as Enterococcus spp. (including VRE), Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA), or Streptococcus pyogenes, survive for months on dry surfaces. Many gram-negative species, such as Acinetobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, or Shigella spp., can also survive for months. A few others, such as Bordetella pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae, Proteus vulgaris, or Vibrio cholerae, however, persist only for days. Mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and spore-forming bacteria, including Clostridium difficile, can also survive for months on surfaces. Candida albicans as the most important nosocomial fungal pathogen can survive up to 4 months on surfaces. Persistence of other yeasts, such as Torulopsis glabrata, was described to be similar (5 months) or shorter (Candida parapsilosis, 14 days). Most viruses from the respiratory tract, such as corona, coxsackie, influenza, SARS or rhino virus, can persist on surfaces for a few days. Viruses from the gastrointestinal tract, such as astrovirus, HAV, polio- or rota virus, persist for approximately 2 months. Blood-borne viruses, such as HBV or HIV, can persist for more than one week. Herpes viruses, such as CMV or HSV type 1 and 2, have been shown to persist from only a few hours up to 7 days. Conclusion The most common nosocomial pathogens may well survive or persist on surfaces for months and can thereby be a continuous source of transmission if no regular preventive surface disinfection is performed.
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            Mobile phone addiction: a point of issue.

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              Review of mobile communication devices as potential reservoirs of nosocomial pathogens.

              Innovation in mobile communication technology has provided novel approaches to the delivery of healthcare and improvements in the speed and quality of routine medical communication. Bacterial contamination of mobile communication devices (MCDs) could be an important issue affecting the implementation of effective infection control measures and might have an impact on efforts to reduce cross-contamination. This review examines recent studies reporting bacterial contamination of MCDs, most demonstrating that 9-25% of MCDs are contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. We examine previously investigated risk factors for MCD contamination in addition to work on surface decontamination of the device. Recommendations to reduce contamination risks include staff education, strict hand hygiene measures, guidelines on device cleaning and consideration of the restrictions regarding use of mobile phone technology in certain high risk areas, for example, operating theatres, intensive care units and burns units. Further work is required to evaluate the benefit of such interventions on MCD contamination and to determine whether a link exists between contamination and subsequent patient infection.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                ECAM
                Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM
                Hindawi
                1741-427X
                1741-4288
                2022
                27 May 2022
                27 May 2022
                : 2022
                : 1527488
                Affiliations
                1School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Dayananda Sagar University, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
                2Laboratory Medicine Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
                3Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Daffodil International University, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Vijaya Anand

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6874-1188
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4532-9128
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8514-2064
                Article
                10.1155/2022/1527488
                9166947
                0ccc34ce-1b1d-4cd3-ae89-88582c9d22da
                Copyright © 2022 Manjula NG et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 1 April 2022
                : 13 May 2022
                Categories
                Research Article

                Complementary & Alternative medicine
                Complementary & Alternative medicine

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