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      Mechanochemistry: A Force of Synthesis

      review-article
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      ACS Central Science
      American Chemical Society

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          Abstract

          The past decade has seen a reawakening of solid-state approaches to chemical synthesis, driven by the search for new, cleaner synthetic methodologies. Mechanochemistry, i.e., chemical transformations initiated or sustained by mechanical force, has been advancing particularly rapidly, from a laboratory curiosity to a widely applicable technique that not only enables a cleaner route to chemical transformations but offers completely new opportunities in making and screening for molecules and materials. This Outlook provides a brief overview of the recent achievements and opportunities created by mechanochemistry, including access to materials, molecular targets, and synthetic strategies that are hard or even impossible to access by conventional means.

          Abstract

          Ball milling mechanochemistry has emerged as a generally applicable approach to solvent-free synthesis, which not only can be cleaner, faster, and simpler than conventional routes but also allows targeting previously elusive molecular structures.

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          Most cited references89

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          Mechanochemistry: opportunities for new and cleaner synthesis.

          The aim of this critical review is to provide a broad but digestible overview of mechanochemical synthesis, i.e. reactions conducted by grinding solid reactants together with no or minimal solvent. Although mechanochemistry has historically been a sideline approach to synthesis it may soon move into the mainstream because it is increasingly apparent that it can be practical, and even advantageous, and because of the opportunities it provides for developing more sustainable methods. Concentrating on recent advances, this article covers industrial aspects, inorganic materials, organic synthesis, cocrystallisation, pharmaceutical aspects, metal complexes (including metal-organic frameworks), supramolecular aspects and characterization methods. The historical development, mechanistic aspects, limitations and opportunities are also discussed (314 references). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012
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            Mechanical alloying and milling

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              Hallmarks of mechanochemistry: from nanoparticles to technology.

              The aim of this review article on recent developments of mechanochemistry (nowadays established as a part of chemistry) is to provide a comprehensive overview of advances achieved in the field of atomistic processes, phase transformations, simple and multicomponent nanosystems and peculiarities of mechanochemical reactions. Industrial aspects with successful penetration into fields like materials engineering, heterogeneous catalysis and extractive metallurgy are also reviewed. The hallmarks of mechanochemistry include influencing reactivity of solids by the presence of solid-state defects, interphases and relaxation phenomena, enabling processes to take place under non-equilibrium conditions, creating a well-crystallized core of nanoparticles with disordered near-surface shell regions and performing simple dry time-convenient one-step syntheses. Underlying these hallmarks are technological consequences like preparing new nanomaterials with the desired properties or producing these materials in a reproducible way with high yield and under simple and easy operating conditions. The last but not least hallmark is enabling work under environmentally friendly and essentially waste-free conditions (822 references).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ACS Cent Sci
                ACS Cent Sci
                oc
                acscii
                ACS Central Science
                American Chemical Society
                2374-7943
                2374-7951
                29 December 2016
                25 January 2017
                : 3
                : 1
                : 13-19
                Affiliations
                [1]Department of Chemistry, McGill University , 801 Sherbrooke Street West H3A0B8 Montreal, Canada
                Author notes
                [* ]E-mail: tomislav.friscic@ 123456mcgill.ca . Tel: +1-514-398-3959.
                Article
                10.1021/acscentsci.6b00277
                5269651
                28149948
                0cd33757-d583-4eb4-ae65-7b6a18cacc94
                Copyright © 2016 American Chemical Society

                This is an open access article published under an ACS AuthorChoice License, which permits copying and redistribution of the article or any adaptations for non-commercial purposes.

                History
                : 17 September 2016
                Categories
                Outlook
                Custom metadata
                oc6b00277
                oc-2016-002774

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