Complex encapsulated neurovascular structures, glomus organs, occur in superficial and deep positions in many species. No direct evidence for their function exists. In skin they may serve thermoregulation but the reason for their structural complexity remains obscure. The concept of a local humoral circulatory control mechanism postulated on the basis of a very high acetylcholine content reported for human glomera coccygia has been investigated in homologous caudal glomus organs in monkey. No acetylcholine was detected. The organs contained 3-4 times the concentration of catecholamine (mainly noradrenaline) found in nearby vessels. Neither structure nor content of vasoactive component gives any support for an endocrine function.