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      A Comparison of Postoperative Early Enteral Nutrition with Delayed Enteral Nutrition in Patients with Esophageal Cancer

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          Abstract

          We examined esophageal cancer patients who received enteral nutrition (EN) to evaluate the validity of early EN compared to delayed EN, and to determine the appropriate time to start EN. A total of 208 esophagectomy patients who received EN postoperatively were divided into three groups (Group 1, 2 and 3) based on whether they received EN within 48 h, 48 h–72 h or more than 72 h, respectively. The postoperative complications, length of hospital stay (LOH), days for first fecal passage, cost of hospitalization, and the difference in serum albumin values between pre-operation and post-operation were all recorded. The statistical analyses were performed using the t-test, the Mann-Whitney U test and the chi square test. Statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. Group 1 had the lowest thoracic drainage volume, the earliest first fecal passage, and the lowest LOH and hospitalization expenses of the three groups. The incidence of pneumonia was by far the highest in Group 3 ( p = 0.019). Finally, all the postoperative outcomes of nutritional conditions were the worst by a significant margin in Group 3. It is therefore safe and valid to start early enteral nutrition within 48 h for postoperative esophageal cancer patients.

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          Early enteral feeding, compared with parenteral, reduces postoperative septic complications. The results of a meta-analysis.

          This two-part meta-analysis combined data from eight prospective randomized trials designed to compare the nutritional efficacy of early enteral (TEN) and parenteral (TPN) nutrition in high-risk surgical patients. The combined data gave sufficient patient numbers (TEN, n = 118; TPN, n = 112) to adequately address whether route of substrate delivery affected septic complication incidence. Phase I (dropouts excluded) meta-analysis confirmed data homogeneity across study sites, that TEN and TPN groups were comparable, and that significantly fewer TEN patients experienced septic complications (TEN, 18%; TPN, 35%; p = 0.01). Phase II meta-analysis, an intent-to-treat analysis (dropouts included), confirmed that fewer TEN patients developed septic complications. Further breakdown by patient type showed that all trauma and blunt trauma subgroups had the most significant reduction in septic complications when fed enterally. In conclusion, this meta-analysis attests to the feasibility of early postoperative TEN in high-risk surgical patients and that these patients have reduced septic morbidity rates compared with those administered TPN.
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            Early enteral nutrition, provided within 24 h of injury or intensive care unit admission, significantly reduces mortality in critically ill patients: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

            To determine whether the provision of early standard enteral nutrition (EN) confers treatment benefits to critically ill patients. Medline and EMBASE were searched. Hand citation review of retrieved guidelines and systematic reviews were undertaken, and academic and industry experts were contacted. Methodologically sound randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in critically ill patient populations that compared the delivery of standard EN, provided within 24 h of intensive care unit (ICU) admission or injury, to standard care were included. The primary analysis was conducted on clinically meaningful patient-oriented outcomes. Secondary analyses considered vomiting/regurgitation, pneumonia, bacteraemia, sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Meta-analyses were conducted using the odds ratio (OR) metric and a fixed effects model. The impact of heterogeneity was assessed using the I (2) metric. Six RCTs with 234 participants were analysed. The provision of early EN was associated with a significant reduction in mortality [OR = 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14-0.85] and pneumonia (OR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.12-0.78). There were no other significant differences in outcomes. A sensitivity analysis and a simulation exercise confirmed the presence of a mortality reduction. Although the detection of a statistically significant reduction in mortality is promising, overall trial quality was low, trial size was small, and the findings may be restricted to the patient groups enrolled into included trials. The results of this meta-analysis should be confirmed by the conduct of a large multi-centre trial enrolling diverse critically ill patient groups.
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              Randomized clinical trial of the effects of preoperative and postoperative oral nutritional supplements on clinical course and cost of care.

              Postoperative oral nutritional supplementation has been shown to be of clinical benefit. This study examined the clinical effects and cost of administration of oral supplements both before and after surgery. This was a randomized clinical trial conducted in three centres. Patients undergoing lower gastrointestinal tract surgery were randomized to one of four groups: group CC received no nutritional supplements, group SS took supplements both before and after surgery, group CS received postoperative supplements only, and group SC were given supplements only before surgery. Preoperative supplements were given from the time it was decided to operate to 1 day before surgery. Postoperative supplements were started when the patient was able to take free fluids and continued for 4 weeks after discharge from hospital. Data collected included weight change, complications, length of stay, nutritional intake, anthropometrics, quality of life and detailed costings covering all aspects of care. Some 179 patients were randomized, of whom 27 were withdrawn and 152 analysed (CC 44, SS 32, CS 35, SC 41). Dietary intake was similar in all four groups throughout the study. Mean energy intake from preoperative supplements was 536 and 542 kcal/day in the SS and SC groups respectively; that 2 weeks after discharge from hospital was 274 and 361 kcal/day in the SS and CS groups respectively. There was significantly less postoperative weight loss in the SS group than in the CC and CS groups (P < 0.050), and significantly fewer minor complications in the SS and CS groups than the CC group (P < 0.050). There were no differences in the rate of major complications, anthropometrics and quality of life. Mean overall costs were greatest in the CC group, although differences between groups were not significant. Perioperative oral nutritional supplementation started before hospital admission for lower gastrointestinal tract surgery significantly diminished the degree of weight loss and incidence of minor complications, and was cost-effective. Copyright 2004 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutrients
                Nutrients
                nutrients
                Nutrients
                MDPI
                2072-6643
                02 June 2015
                June 2015
                : 7
                : 6
                : 4308-4317
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Nursing, Shandong University, 44 Wenhua West Road, Jinan 250012, China; E-Mails: dabo1988@ 123456126.com (H.C.); liujunangel@ 123456163.com (J.L.)
                [2 ]Thoracic Surgery of Shandong Provincial Hospital, Shandong University, 9677 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250014, China
                [3 ]School of Medicine, Shandong University, 44 Wenhua West Road, Jinan 250012, China; E-Mail: myc88587479@ 123456hotmail.com
                [4 ]Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), School of Pharmaceutica Sciences, Shandong University, 44 Wenhua West Road, Jinan 250012, China; E-Mail: 502378774@ 123456163.com
                Author notes
                [†]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: wanggongchao@ 123456126.com ; Tel.: +86-151-6886-3772.
                Article
                nutrients-07-04308
                10.3390/nu7064308
                4488785
                26043031
                © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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