Tropical infectious diseases are communicable diseases caused by a group of bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminths that affect the world’s health. Important issues are the intimate connection of these diseases with poverty, geographical isolation, paucity of data regarding local and global burden estimates, insufficient financial resources for their control. Steps to reduce the global disease burden of the diseases need attention at multi-dimensional levels. Eradication surveillances, diagnoses, drug administrations and transmission checks are some of them, One of the most urgent is the diagnosis of the disease. Due to an infection with neglected tropical diseases are often unspecific, an accurate and early diagnosis is important for adequate patient management and treatment. The lack of rapid and accurate tests for many of the neglected tropical diseases is an important feature for their general neglect and the under-appreciation of their disease burden. Since the publication of the WHO Roadmap to overcome the impact of neglected tropical diseases in 2020, as well as Economics and a desire for improved tropical fever cases management, result in the rapid growth of rapid diagnostic tests use in the recent years. The development of advanced and standardised sensitive diagnostic approaches that are practicable and affordable is of prime importance to identify and tackle neglected tropical diseases. Rapid deployment of these new technologies for the control and elimination of the diseases can present multiple challenges on fragile health systems. The diagnostic techniques of etiology , immunology, molecular biology, microfluidics and biosensors developed in recent years are summarized. These methods have the advantages of convenient operation, relative stability and reliability, high specificity and sensitivity, which are suitable for field detection. However, the effectiveness of these methods in field detection needs to be further evaluated.
摘要 ：热带传染病是一类由细菌、病毒、原虫、蠕虫等病原体引起的严重危害人类健康的疾病。由于该类疾病与贫 穷、地理位置偏僻等关联, 其流行性缺乏数据, 故缺乏财政支持等致其备受忽视。为减轻这些疾病的负担, 我们需要关 注疾病清除计划、疾病诊断、药品管理、传播媒介和流行病学调查等多维角度, 其中最紧要的是对该类疾病的确诊。由 于该类疾病常缺乏特异的症状和体征, 因此早期快速确诊就显得更加重要。目前普遍缺乏便捷有效的诊断方法是该 类疾病受到忽视的因素之一, 并导致对其造成的经济损失有所低估。自WHO发布消除被忽略的热带病2020年规划以 来, 应对发热性疾病诊治的经济负担凸显了快速侦检技术的重要性, 同时也促进了该类技术的研发应用。在该类疾病 的诊断和治疗中首要的就是要研发敏感有效的诊断技术, 并实现质量控制和对各类医疗机构的充足供应以更好地诊 断、控制和消除该类疾病。本文对近年来研究的病原学、免疫学、分子生物学、微流控和生物传感器等诊断技术进行总 结, 该类检测方法具有操作方便、相对稳定可靠、特异度和敏感度较高以及较适用于现场侦检等优点, 但该类方法在现 场侦检应用中的效能仍需要进一步评估。