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      Investigating Adolescents’ Video Gaming and Gambling Activities, and Their Relationship With Behavioral, Emotional, and Social Difficulties: Protocol for a Multi-Informant Study


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          Growing empirical evidence suggests that adolescents have a relatively greater propensity to develop problematic video gaming or gambling habits.


          The main objectives of this study are to estimate the prevalence of potential pathological gambling and video game use among adolescent students and to evaluate their risk factors.


          This is a cross-sectional multi-informant study based on an online survey. It will include a sample of adolescents attending secondary schools located in Brescia, northern Italy, their schoolteachers, and parents. The survey includes extensive data on adolescents’ (1) demographic, social, economic, and environmental characteristics; (2) behavioral, emotional, and social problems and adaptive functioning; (3) emotional and social loneliness; (4) perception of the reasons to use social networks; (5) video game habits and pathological use of video gaming; and (6) gambling behaviors.


          This protocol was approved by the Institutional Ethics Board of the Spedali Civili of Brescia (Italy). We expect to collect data from 793 or more adolescent students, as determined by our sample size calculation.


          This multisite project will make a substantial contribution to (1) the implementation of a system for identifying pathological gambling and pathological video game use among adolescents, allowing for interventions aimed at improving adolescents’ financial, emotional, and social well-being; and (2) the identification of distinct profiles of gamblers and pathological video gamers that will contribute to setting up effective targeted prevention measures. Understanding the causes and impact of gambling and pathological video gaming on adolescents is a public health issue.

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          Most cited references43

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          An international consensus for assessing internet gaming disorder using the new DSM-5 approach.

          For the first time, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) introduces non-substance addictions as psychiatric diagnoses. The aims of this paper are to (i) present the main controversies surrounding the decision to include internet gaming disorder, but not internet addiction more globally, as a non-substance addiction in the research appendix of the DSM-5, and (ii) discuss the meaning behind the DSM-5 criteria for internet gaming disorder. The paper also proposes a common method for assessing internet gaming disorder. Although the need for common diagnostic criteria is not debated, the existence of multiple instruments reflect the divergence of opinions in the field regarding how best to diagnose this condition. We convened international experts from European, North and South American, Asian and Australasian countries to discuss and achieve consensus about assessing internet gaming disorder as defined within DSM-5. We describe the intended meaning behind each of the nine DSM-5 criteria for internet gaming disorder and present a single item that best reflects each criterion, translated into the 10 main languages of countries in which research on this condition has been conducted. Using results from this cross-cultural collaboration, we outline important research directions for understanding and assessing internet gaming disorder. As this field moves forward, it is critical that researchers and clinicians around the world begin to apply a common methodology; this report is the first to achieve an international consensus related to the assessment of internet gaming disorder. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.
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            A 6-Item Scale for Overall, Emotional, and Social Loneliness: Confirmatory Tests on Survey Data

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              Cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies of Internet gaming disorder: A systematic review of the literature.

              The diagnostic criteria of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) have been included in section III of DSM-5. This study aims to systematically review both cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies of IGD.

                Author and article information

                JMIR Res Protoc
                JMIR Res Protoc
                JMIR Research Protocols
                JMIR Publications (Toronto, Canada )
                February 2022
                25 February 2022
                : 11
                : 2
                : e33376
                [1 ] Department of Clinical and Experimental Science University of Brescia Brescia Italy
                [2 ] Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine University of Brescia Brescia Italy
                [3 ] Department of Brain and Behavioural Sciences University of Pavia Pavia Italy
                Author notes
                Corresponding Author: Alberto Stefana alberto.stefana@ 123456gmail.com
                Author information
                ©Loredana Cena, Matteo Rota, Alice Trainini, Sara Zecca, Sofia Bonetti Zappa, Nella Tralli, Alberto Stefana. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (https://www.researchprotocols.org), 25.02.2022.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in JMIR Research Protocols, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on https://www.researchprotocols.org, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.

                : 4 September 2021
                : 18 November 2021
                : 17 December 2021
                : 24 December 2021

                adolescents,gaming disorder,gambling disorder,pathological video gaming,pathological gambling


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