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      Estudio comparativo del efecto metabólico de arepas enriquecidas con pectina extraída de guayaba (Psidium guajava L.) o pectina cítrica comercial Translated title: Estudo comparativo do efeito metabólico de arepas enriquecidas com pectina extraída de goiaba (Psidium guajava L.) ou pectina cítrica comercial Translated title: Comparative study of the metabolic effect of arepas enriched with pectin extracted from guava (Psidium guajava L.) or commercial citrus pectin

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          Abstract

          La guayaba (Psidium guajava L.), contiene hasta un 8.5% de fibra dietética total de la cual el 1.9% es fibra soluble, lo que hace a esta fruta tropical una buena fuente de pectina, fibra soluble cuyo consumo disminuye la absorción intestinal de los lípidos y protege contra las enfermedades cardiovasculares. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto metabólico del consumo de arepas de maíz enriquecidas con un 10% de pectina durante 20 días, en el perfil lipídico y la glicemia de un grupo de 75 estudiantes universitarios; se buscó además establecer las diferencias en el efecto observado cuando dentro de la formulación de las arepas se adicionó una pectina cítrica de uso comercial respecto a cuando se empleó pectina extraída de guayaba (Psidium guajava L.). La comparación de los niveles de glucosa y lípidos antes y después del tratamiento mostró que el consumo de dichas arepas generó cambios favorables para la salud de los individuos, pues hubo una disminución estadísticamente significativa en los niveles séricos de colesterol total, colesterol LDL y glucosa. Aunque hay una tendencia en los resultados que muestra un aumento promedio en el colesterol HDL luego del consumo de los productos con los dos tipos de pectina, no hay evidencia estadística para inferir que dicho cambio sea significativo. De la misma forma, los resultados no indican diferencias entre el efecto generado por lo dos tipos de pectina, a excepción de la mayor disminución en los niveles de triglicéridos lograda con la adición de pectina comercial.

          Translated abstract

          A goiaba (Psidium guajava L.) contém até 8,5% de fibra alimentar total, dos quais 1,9% é fibra solúvel, o que torna esta fruta tropical uma boa fonte de pectina, fibra solúvel, cujo consumo diminui a absorção intestinal de lipídios e protege contra doenças cardiovasculares. Este estudo avaliou o efeito metabólico do consumo de arepas de milho enriquecidas com 10% de pectina, durante 20 dias, no perfil lipídico e glicêmico de um grupo de 75 estudantes universitários. Também se procurou determinar as diferenças no efeito observado quando na formulação das arepas se adicionou uma pectina cítrica comercial comparado com o uso de uma pectina extraída de goiaba (Psidium guajava L.). A comparação dos níveis de glicose e lípidos, antes e depois do tratamento, mostrou que o consumo destas arepas originou mudanças favoráveis para a saúde dos indivíduos, uma vez que houve uma diminuição estatisticamente significativa nos níveis séricos do colesterol total, colesterol LDL e glicose. Embora haja uma tendência nos resultados que mostra um aumento médio nos níveis de colesterol HDL após o consumo de produtos com os dois tipos de pectinas, não há nenhuma evidência estatística para inferir que a alteração seja significativa. Da mesma forma, os resultados indicam que não há diferença entre o efeito gerado pelos dois tipos de pectina, exceto para a maior diminuição nos níveis de triglicerídeos obtidos com a adição de pectina comercial.

          Translated abstract

          Guava (Psidium guajava L.), contains up to 8.5% total dietary fiber, of which 1.9% is soluble fiber, which makes this tropical fruit a good source of pectin, soluble fiber whose consumption decreases intestinal absorption of lipids and protects against cardiovascular disease. In this work the metabolic effect of consumption of corn arepas enriched with 10% pectin for 20 days, in the lipid profile and blood glucose in a group of 75 university students was evaluated; it was also seek to establish the differences in the effect observed when within the formulation of the arepas a commercial citrus pectin was added compared to when pectin extracted from guava (Psidium guajava L.) was used. The comparison of the glucose and lipid levels before and after treatment showed that with consumption of those arepas favorable changes for the health of the individuals were generated, since there was a statistically significant decrease in serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and glucose. Although there is a trend in the results showing an average increase in HDL cholesterol after consumption of products with the two types of pectin, there is no statistical evidence to infer that the change is significant. Similarly, the results indicate no difference between the effects generated by the two types of pectin, except for the greatest decrease in triglyceride levels achieved when commercial pectin was added.

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          Most cited references18

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          Health benefits of dietary fiber.

          Dietary fiber intake provides many health benefits. However, average fiber intakes for US children and adults are less than half of the recommended levels. Individuals with high intakes of dietary fiber appear to be at significantly lower risk for developing coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and certain gastrointestinal diseases. Increasing fiber intake lowers blood pressure and serum cholesterol levels. Increased intake of soluble fiber improves glycemia and insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic and diabetic individuals. Fiber supplementation in obese individuals significantly enhances weight loss. Increased fiber intake benefits a number of gastrointestinal disorders including the following: gastroesophageal reflux disease, duodenal ulcer, diverticulitis, constipation, and hemorrhoids. Prebiotic fibers appear to enhance immune function. Dietary fiber intake provides similar benefits for children as for adults. The recommended dietary fiber intakes for children and adults are 14 g/1000 kcal. More effective communication and consumer education is required to enhance fiber consumption from foods or supplements.
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            Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary fiber: a meta-analysis

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              Cholesterol-lowering properties of different pectin types in mildly hyper-cholesterolemic men and women.

              Viscous fibers typically reduce total cholesterol (TC) by 3-7% in humans. The cholesterol-lowering properties of the viscous fiber pectin may depend on its physico-chemical properties (viscosity, molecular weight (MW) and degree of esterification (DE)), but these are not typically described in publications, nor required by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) with respect to its generic pectin cholesterol-lowering claim. Here, different sources and types of well-characterized pectin were evaluated in humans. Cross-over studies were completed in mildly hyper-cholesterolemic persons receiving either 15 g/day pectin or cellulose with food for 4 weeks. Relative low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering was as follows: citrus pectin DE-70=apple pectin DE-70 (7-10% reduction versus control)>apple pectin DE-35=citrus pectin DE-35>OPF (orange pulp fiber) DE-70 and low-MW pectin DE-70>citrus DE-0. In a subsequent 3-week trial with 6 g/day pectin, citrus DE-70 and high MW pectin DE-70 reduced LDL-C 6-7% versus control (without changes in TC). In both studies, high DE and high MW were important for cholesterol lowering. Source may also be important as citrus and apple DE-70 pectin were more effective than OPF DE-70 pectin. Pectin did not affect inflammatory markers high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) nor plasma homocysteine. Pectin source and type (DE and MW) affect cholesterol lowering. The EFSA pectin cholesterol-lowering claim should require a minimum level of characterization, including DE and MW.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rcq
                Revista Colombiana de Química
                Rev.Colomb.Quim.
                Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. (Bogotá, Distrito Capital, Colombia )
                0120-2804
                2357-3791
                December 2013
                : 42
                : 3
                : 302-325
                Affiliations
                [01] Bogotá orgnameUniversidad Nacional de Colombia orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias orgdiv2Departamento de Química Colombia
                [03] orgnameUniversidad Nacional de Colombia orgdiv1Facultad de Medicina
                [02] Bogotá orgnameUniversidad Nacional de Colombia orgdiv1Facultad de Medicina Colombia
                Article
                S0120-28042013000300001 S0120-2804(13)04200301
                0cf086a0-b3f0-450c-ac94-aa528c0a8c34

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 21, Pages: 24
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                Self URI: Texto completo solamente en formato PDF (ES)
                Categories
                Aticulos originales de investigación

                Fibra dietética,pectina de goiaba,pectina cítrica,arepas,efeito hipolipemiante,Dietary fiber,guava pectin,citrus pectin,hypolipidemic effect,pectina de guayaba,efecto hipolipemiante

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