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      Neuroplasticity, limbic neuroblastosis and neuro-regenerative disorders

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          The brain is a dynamic organ of the biological renaissance due to the existence of neuroplasticity. Adult neurogenesis abides by every aspect of neuroplasticity in the intact brain and contributes to neural regeneration in response to brain diseases and injury. The occurrence of adult neurogenesis has unequivocally been witnessed in human subjects, experimental and wildlife research including rodents, bats and cetaceans. Adult neurogenesis is a complex cellular process, in which generation of neuroblasts namely, neuroblastosis appears to be an integral process that occur in the limbic system and basal ganglia in addition to the canonical neurogenic niches. Neuroblastosis can be regulated by various factors and contributes to different functions of the brain. The characteristics and fate of neuroblasts have been found to be different among mammals regardless of their cognitive functions. Recently, regulation of neuroblastosis has been proposed for the sensorimotor interface and regenerative neuroplasticity of the adult brain. Hence, the understanding of adult neurogenesis at the functional level of neuroblasts requires a great scientific attention. Therefore, this mini-review provides a glimpse into the conceptual development of neuroplasticity, discusses the possible role of different types of neuroblasts and signifies neuroregenerative failure as a potential cause of dementia.

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          Most cited references 62

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          Neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus.

          The genesis of new cells, including neurons, in the adult human brain has not yet been demonstrated. This study was undertaken to investigate whether neurogenesis occurs in the adult human brain, in regions previously identified as neurogenic in adult rodents and monkeys. Human brain tissue was obtained postmortem from patients who had been treated with the thymidine analog, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), that labels DNA during the S phase. Using immunofluorescent labeling for BrdU and for one of the neuronal markers, NeuN, calbindin or neuron specific enolase (NSE), we demonstrate that new neurons, as defined by these markers, are generated from dividing progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus of adult humans. Our results further indicate that the human hippocampus retains its ability to generate neurons throughout life.
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            Mechanisms and functional implications of adult neurogenesis.

            The generation of new neurons is sustained throughout adulthood in the mammalian brain due to the proliferation and differentiation of adult neural stem cells. In this review, we discuss the factors that regulate proliferation and fate determination of adult neural stem cells and describe recent studies concerning the integration of newborn neurons into the existing neural circuitry. We further address the potential significance of adult neurogenesis in memory, depression, and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.
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              Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus.

              Exposure to an enriched environment increases neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of adult rodents. Environmental enrichment, however, typically consists of many components, such as expanded learning opportunities, increased social interaction, more physical activity and larger housing. We attempted to separate components by assigning adult mice to various conditions: water-maze learning (learner), swim-time-yoked control (swimmer), voluntary wheel running (runner), and enriched (enriched) and standard housing (control) groups. Neither maze training nor yoked swimming had any effect on bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cell number. However, running doubled the number of surviving newborn cells, in amounts similar to enrichment conditions. Our findings demonstrate that voluntary exercise is sufficient for enhanced neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus.

                Author and article information

                Neural Regen Res
                Neural Regen Res
                Neural Regeneration Research
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                August 2018
                : 13
                : 8
                : 1322-1326
                [1 ]Laboratory of Stem Cells and Neuroregeneration, Department of Animal Science, School of Life Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India
                [2 ]Faculty Recharge Programme, University Grants Commission (UGC-FRP), New Delhi, India
                [3 ]Institute of Molecular Regenerative Medicine, Salzburg, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria
                [4 ]Spinal Cord Injury and Tissue Regeneration Center, Salzburg, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence to: Mahesh Kandasamy, or Ludwig Aigner, pkmahesh5@ or mahesh.kandasamy@ or ludwig.aigner@ .

                Author contributions: Conceptual writing and illustration: MK; commenting and writing: LA.

                Copyright: © Neural Regeneration Research

                This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.



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