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      Calcium and Phosphate Plasma Levels in Dialysis Patients after Dietary Ca-P Overload

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          Abstract

          In normal subjects, the gastric ionisation of calcium and phosphate seems to be a prerequisite for their intestinal absorption. We investigated the behavior of the plasma calcium and phosphate profile in 30 patients on regular dialysis treatment in the 6 h following a meal containing 1 g of calcium and 2 g of phosphate. Moreover, to assess the role of gastric acidity, the study was repeated after 3 days on omeprazole administration, to nearly abolish gastric acid secretion. Both total plasma calcium and ionized calcium peaked after the meal (at 30 and 120 min, respectively) only in basal study, while no peak was observed after the administration of omeprazole. Surprisingly, both in basal and in the omeprazole study the levels of plasma phosphate did not increase after the test meal. In conclusion, as in normal subjects, the gastric ionization of dietary calcium promotes the intestinal absorption of calcium in uremic patients on dialysis treatment, while the acute gastric acid inhibition by omeprazole reduced the intestinal calcium transport. In contrast, with the ‘trade off’ hypothesis we did not observe any postprandial phosphate peak after the dietary load, and, in contrast with normal subjects, omeprazole administration did not influence the phosphate profile.

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          Inhibition of gastric secretion by omeprazole and efficiency of calcium carbonate on the control of hyperphosphatemia in patients on chronic hemodialysis.

          Contradictions exist in the literature regarding the effect of gastric secretion inhibition on phosphate absorption. In healthy controls, omeprazole would decrease the hyperphosphatemia or the hyperphosphaturia induced by an acute phosphate load, suggesting an inhibition of phosphate absorption. In chronic hemodialysis patients, gastric hypersecretion is associated with hyperphosphatemia, but inhibition of gastric hypersecretion by ranitidine in those receiving calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as a phosphate binder would paradoxically exacerbate their hyperphosphatemia. Because of these conflicting observations, we performed an open crossover study on 16 chronic stable hemodialyzed patients with a daily mean intake of 9.4+/-4 g of CaCO3, and we compared the plasmatic predialysis levels of phosphate, calcium, protides, bicarbonates, intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), urea, and creatininemia during 2 successive periods of 2 months, the first one without omeprazole and the second one with 20 mg omeprazole intake in the morning. Phosphatemia increased with omeprazole but not significantly from 1.80+/-0.38 to 1.89+/-0.42 mM whereas corrected calcemia decreased significantly (p = 0.04) from 2.41+/-0.18 to 2.36+/-0.16 mM as did bicarbonatemia from 26.7+/-3.5 to 25.7+/-3.1 mM (p < 0.05). No change in creatininemia or in blood urea was observed, suggesting the stable efficiency of dialysis as well as the stable intakes of protein and therefore of phosphate during the two study periods. In conclusion, inhibition of gastric secretion by omeprazole increases the plasmatic phosphate predialytic level but in a nonsignificant way. This increase may be explained by a slight but significant concomitant decrease of calcemia and bicarbonatemia. These results do not support the phosphate binding efficiency of CaCO3 being decreased by the inhibition of gastric acid secretion.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            NEF
            Nephron
            10.1159/issn.1660-8151
            Nephron
            S. Karger AG
            1660-8151
            2235-3186
            2002
            July 2002
            01 July 2002
            : 91
            : 3
            : 474-479
            Affiliations
            aDivision of Internal Medicine, Nephrology and Dialysis, Istituto Clinico Humanitas; bDivision of Nephrology and Dialysis, IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico; cDivision of Nephrology and Dialysis, Ospedale S. Paolo, Milano, Italy
            Article
            64290 Nephron 2002;91:474–479
            10.1159/000064290
            12119480
            © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

            Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

            Page count
            Figures: 7, References: 22, Pages: 6
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            Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/64290
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            Original Paper

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