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      Association of nailfold capillary changes with disease activity, clinical and laboratory findings in patients with dermatomyositis

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          Abstract

          Background: The present study aimed to investigate the Nailfold Capillaroscopy (NC) features of the patients with dermatomyositis (DM) and its correlation with their disease activity indices, physical findings, and laboratory results.

          Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 27 DM patients above 16 years old who had referred to an(there are 3 clinics not one) outpatient rheumatology clinics from 2012 to 2013. Nailfold capillaroscopy and calculation of disease activity indices were performed separately for all the patients by two rheumatologists who were blinded to each other's results. Statistical analyses were performed using chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests.

          Results: The mean age of the patients was 39.2±14.1 years with the mean disease duration of 13.1±15.2 months (range: 1-72 months). Myopathic electromyography (EMG) findings showed a strong association with scleroderma pattern (p=0.015). However, disease activity in each organ system and global disease activity showed no significant association between scleroderma pattern and other NC findings. (Disease activity in each organ system and also global disease activity were both assessed to see if they are associated with scleroderma pattern and other NC findings so if we use between it means we are looking for an association between scleroderma pattern and other NC findings and this is not what we have done and is wrong.)

          Conclusion: This study revealed no significant relationship between disease activity indices and NC features. Thus, it may be more precise to interpret the results of NC in conjunction with other physical and laboratory findings.

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          Most cited references39

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          Polymyositis, dermatomyositis and inclusion-body myositis.

          M. Dalakas (1991)
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            Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: epidemiology, classification, and diagnostic criteria.

            Epidemiologic studies have helped to define the prevalence and incidence of PM, DM, and IBM and have highlighted differences in risk between men and women and in the age at onset for the different forms of myositis. Additionally, these studies have shown that there is a substantially higher risk of PM and DM in certain racial groups which is likely to be genetically determined. These differences are all likely to be fundamental in terms of the pathogenesis of these diseases but, as yet, their full significance remains uncertain. They do, however, suggest that the interplay between genetic and environmental initiating factors is different in the three disorders. Additional population-based studies in homogeneous racial groups, in parallel with studies of susceptibility genes for autoimmune disease, such as those encoding the MHC and inflammatory cytokines, are needed to throw further light on the role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of the IIMs [47]. Because of the paucity of epidemiologic data on IBM, further studies are required to determine the degree of variation in prevalence in different populations and racial groups, as well as the consistency of the male association and age spectrum of manifestations of the disease. The particularly strong association with DR3 in this form of IIM [48] clearly points to the importance of genetic factors in pathogenesis, but further studies of DR3-associated genes in the MHC and of other candidate genes are needed to define more precisely the genes that convey susceptibility to the disease in different racial groups. Epidemiologic studies also have the potential to identify environmental factors that may play a part in disease initiation in genetically susceptible individuals. Seasonal patterns of disease onset have been reported, particularly in patients with DM [49-51] as well as seasonal variation in the frequency of relapses [52], pointing to the probable involvement of intercurrent infections, ultraviolet light exposure, or other environmental factors in disease initiation and reactivation. Further prospective studies are required to determine the contribution of environmental exposures and how they interact with genetic susceptibility factors to lead to myositis. One of the major limitations of a number of the previous epidemiologic studies is the lack of precision in the diagnostic criteria used and the classification of cases of IIM. The Bohan and Peter criteria [1] which were used in most studies after 1975, were introduced before IBM was recognized as an entity distinct from PM; most of the published incidence and prevalence figures for PM are therefore likely to be inaccurate. Multicentered, interdisciplinary, prospective studies, incorporating comprehensive clinical, laboratory, and pathologic information, are needed to develop and validate better diagnostic and classification criteria and to determine the true prevalence and incidence of the many forms of IIM.
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              Dermatomyositis and polymyositis: Clinical presentation, autoantibodies, and pathogenesis.

              Dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM) are autoimmune myopathies characterized clinically by proximal muscle weakness, muscle inflammation, extramuscular manifestations, and frequently, the presence of autoantibodies. Although there is some overlap, DM and PM are separate diseases with different pathophysiological mechanisms. Furthermore, unique clinical phenotypes are associated with each of the myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSAs) associated with these disorders. This review will focus on the clinical features, pathology, and immunogenetics of PM and DM with an emphasis on the importance of autoantibodies in defining unique phenotypes and, perhaps, as clues to help elucidate the mechanisms of disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Med J Islam Repub Iran
                Med J Islam Repub Iran
                MJIRI
                Med J Islam Repub Iran
                Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran
                Iran University of Medical Sciences
                1016-1430
                2251-6840
                2015
                11 July 2015
                : 29
                : 233
                Affiliations
                1 MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Rheumatology, Shiraz Medical School, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Namazee Hospital Shiraz, Iran. shenavandehs@ 123456gmail.com
                2 MD, Rheumatology Fellow, Rheumatology Department, Namazee Hospital, Shiraz, Iran. zareinejadmaryam@ 123456gmail.com
                Author notes
                (Corresponding author) MD, Rheumatology Fellow, Rheumatology Department, Namazee Hospital, Shiraz, Iran. zareinejadmaryam@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                4715380
                0cf7441a-d0f0-4c5c-a534-a159c57fdd3f
                © 2015 Iran University of Medical Sciences

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 3.0 License (CC BY-NC 3.0), which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

                History
                : 06 January 2014
                : 11 March 2015
                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 5, References: 55, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Original Article

                dermatomyositis,nails,capillaroscopy
                dermatomyositis, nails, capillaroscopy

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