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Handling obstacles in pedestrian simulations: Models and optimization

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      Abstract

      In this paper we are concerned with the simulation of crowds in built environments, where obstacles play a role in the dynamics and in the interactions among pedestrians. First of all, we review the state-of-the-art of the techniques for handling obstacles in numerical simulations. Then, we introduce a new modelling technique which guarantees both impermeability and opacity of the obstacles, and does not require ad hoc runtime interventions to avoid collisions. Most important, we solve a complex optimization problem by means of the Particle Swarm Optimization method in order to exploit the so-called Braess's paradox. More precisely, we reduce the evacuation time from a room by adding in the walking area multiple obstacles optimally placed and shaped.

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      Social Force Model for Pedestrian Dynamics

      It is suggested that the motion of pedestrians can be described as if they would be subject to `social forces'. These `forces' are not directly exerted by the pedestrians' personal environment, but they are a measure for the internal motivations of the individuals to perform certain actions (movements). The corresponding force concept is discussed in more detail and can be also applied to the description of other behaviors. In the presented model of pedestrian behavior several force terms are essential: First, a term describing the acceleration towards the desired velocity of motion. Second, terms reflecting that a pedestrian keeps a certain distance to other pedestrians and borders. Third, a term modeling attractive effects. The resulting equations of motion are nonlinearly coupled Langevin equations. Computer simulations of crowds of interacting pedestrians show that the social force model is capable of describing the self-organization of several observed collective effects of pedestrian behavior very realistically.
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        A continuum theory for the flow of pedestrians

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          Self-Organized Pedestrian Crowd Dynamics: Experiments, Simulations, and Design Solutions

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            Journal
            1512.08528

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