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      A new species of Aphyocharax Günther, 1868 (Characiformes, Characidae) from the Maracaçumé river basin, eastern Amazon

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      Zoosystematics and Evolution

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          A new species of Aphyocharax is described from the Maracaçumé river basin, eastern Amazon, based on morphological and molecular data. The new species differs from all its congeners, mainly by possessing the upper caudal-fin lobe longer than the lower one in mature males, and other characters related to teeth counts, colour pattern, and body depth at dorsal-fin origin. In addition, the new species is corroborated by a haplotype phylogenetic analyses based on the Cytochrome B (Cytb) mitochondrial gene, where its haplotypes are grouped into an exclusive lineage, supported by maximum posterior probability value, a species delimitation method termed the Wiens and Penkrot analysis (WP).

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          Most cited references 18

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          Multiple sequence alignment with the Clustal series of programs.

           R Chenna (2003)
          The Clustal series of programs are widely used in molecular biology for the multiple alignment of both nucleic acid and protein sequences and for preparing phylogenetic trees. The popularity of the programs depends on a number of factors, including not only the accuracy of the results, but also the robustness, portability and user-friendliness of the programs. New features include NEXUS and FASTA format output, printing range numbers and faster tree calculation. Although, Clustal was originally developed to run on a local computer, numerous Web servers have been set up, notably at the EBI (European Bioinformatics Institute) (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/clustalw/).
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            The integrative future of taxonomy

            Background Taxonomy is the biological discipline that identifies, describes, classifies and names extant and extinct species and other taxa. Nowadays, species taxonomy is confronted with the challenge to fully incorporate new theory, methods and data from disciplines that study the origin, limits and evolution of species. Results Integrative taxonomy has been proposed as a framework to bring together these conceptual and methodological developments. Here we review perspectives for an integrative taxonomy that directly bear on what species are, how they can be discovered, and how much diversity is on Earth. Conclusions We conclude that taxonomy needs to be pluralistic to improve species discovery and description, and to develop novel protocols to produce the much-needed inventory of life in a reasonable time. To cope with the large number of candidate species revealed by molecular studies of eukaryotes, we propose a classification scheme for those units that will facilitate the subsequent assembly of data sets for the formal description of new species under the Linnaean system, and will ultimately integrate the activities of taxonomists and molecular biologists.
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              Delimiting species using DNA and morphological variation and discordant species limits in spiny lizards (Sceloporus).

              Haplotype phylogenies based on DNA sequence data are increasingly being used to test traditional species-level taxonomies based on morphology. However, few studies have critically compared species limits based on morphological and DNA data, and the methods used to delimit species using either type of data are only rarely explained. In this paper, we review three approaches for species delimitation (tree-based with DNA data and tree-based and character-based with morphological data) and propose explicit protocols for each. We then compare species limits inferred from these approaches, using morphological and mtDNA data for the Yarrow's spiny lizard (Sceloporus jarrovii), a traditionally polytypic species from the southwestern United States and Mexico. All three approaches support division of S. jarrovii into five species, but only two species are the same among the three approaches. We find the greatest support for the five species that are delimited based on mtDNA data, and we argue that mtDNA data may have important (and previously unappreciated) advantages for species delimitation. Because different data and approaches can disagree so extensively, our results demonstrate that the methodology of species delimitation is a critical issue in systematics.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Zoosystematics and Evolution
                ZSE
                Pensoft Publishers
                1860-0743
                1435-1935
                October 23 2019
                October 23 2019
                : 95
                : 2
                : 507-516
                Article
                10.3897/zse.95.36788
                © 2019

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