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      Extracorporeal Removal of Circulating Immune Complexes: From Non-Selective to Patient-Specific

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          Abstract

          The classical immune complex-mediated disease, termed serum sickness, developed a short time after the injection of horse anti-tetanus toxin. Antibodies against circulating horse plasma proteins lead to the formation of immune complexes within the blood circulation (CIC). The inflammatory response, including systemic complement activation and vasculitis, seriously affected the function of all organs, including the most susceptible kidney. Meanwhile CIC have been detected in almost every systemic disease, including autoimmune disorders and also cancer and infections. This brief review will focus on the rationale and the equipment for extracorporeal elimination of CIC.

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          Tolerance induction using the Malmö treatment model 1982-1995: TOLERANCE INDUCTION, MALMÖ 1982-1995

          The ultimate goal in the treatment of haemophilia patients with inhibitors is to eradicate permanently the inhibitor and induce tolerance. Here we summarize our experience at the Malmö centre regarding tolerance induction according to the Malmö Treatment Model. The protocol includes immunoadsorption if needed, neutralization of inhibitor and replacement with factor concentrates, cyclophosphamide intravenously for 2 days (12-15 mg kg-1 bw) and then orally (2-3 mg kg-1 bw) for an additional 8-10 days and intravenous gammaglobulin daily at dosages of 0.4 g kg-1 bw for 5 days. This protocol has been applied in 23 haemophilia patients with inhibitors, 16 haemophilia A patients and seven haemophilia B patients. Altogether 36 attempts have been made to induce tolerance. Ten of the 16 haemophilia A (62.5%) and 6/7 patients with haemophilia B (86%) became tolerant after the treatment. The chances of success or failure are roughly equal, if the series is considered in a historical perspective. The data showed that the chances of success in tolerance induction with the Malmö protocol were best in those patients with low inhibitor titres, with relatively low historical inhibitory peak and with a long interval since the previous replacement therapy. This was especially true where no inflammatory state was present at the start or during tolerance induction. The advantage with this method compared to the high-dose regimen is that in the successful cases tolerance can be achieved within 3-4 weeks.
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            Prevention of hyperacute rejection by removal of antibodies to HLA immediately before renal transplantation

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              Author and article information

              Journal
              BPU
              Blood Purif
              10.1159/issn.0253-5068
              Blood Purification
              S. Karger AG
              0253-5068
              1421-9735
              2000
              2000
              03 August 2000
              : 18
              : 2
              : 156-160
              Affiliations
              aDialysegemeinschaft Nord e.V., Rostock, Germany, and bJMS Ltd., Hiroshima, Japan
              Article
              14441 Blood Purif 2000;18:156–160
              10.1159/000014441
              10838476
              © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Figures: 3, References: 23, Pages: 5
              Product
              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/14441
              Categories
              Minireview – Adsorption Technologies

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