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      The (co-)occurrence of problematic video gaming, substance use, and psychosocial problems in adolescents

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          Abstract

          Aims: The current study explored the nature of problematic (addictive) video gaming (PVG) and the association with game type, psychosocial health, and substance use. Methods: Data were collected using a paper and pencil survey in the classroom setting. Three samples were aggregated to achieve a total sample of 8478 unique adolescents. Scales included measures of game use, game type, the Video game Addiction Test (VAT), depressive mood, negative self-esteem, loneliness, social anxiety, education performance, and use of cannabis, alcohol and nicotine (smoking). Results: Findings confirmed problematic gaming is most common amongst adolescent gamers who play multiplayer online games. Boys (60%) were more likely to play online games than girls (14%) and problematic gamers were more likely to be boys (5%) than girls (1%). High problematic gamers showed higher scores on depressive mood, loneliness, social anxiety, negative self-esteem, and self-reported lower school performance. Nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis using boys were almost twice more likely to report high PVG than non-users. Conclusions: It appears that online gaming in general is not necessarily associated with problems. However, problematic gamers do seem to play online games more often, and a small subgroup of gamers – specifically boys – showed lower psychosocial functioning and lower grades. Moreover, associations with alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis use are found. It would appear that problematic gaming is an undesirable problem for a small subgroup of gamers. The findings encourage further exploration of the role of psychoactive substance use in problematic gaming.

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          Most cited references 107

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          A ‘components’ model of addiction within a biopsychosocial framework

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            Pathological video-game use among youth ages 8 to 18: a national study.

            Researchers have studied whether some youth are "addicted" to video games, but previous studies have been based on regional convenience samples. Using a national sample, this study gathered information about video-gaming habits and parental involvement in gaming, to determine the percentage of youth who meet clinical-style criteria for pathological gaming. A Harris poll surveyed a randomly selected sample of 1,178 American youth ages 8 to 18. About 8% of video-game players in this sample exhibited pathological patterns of play. Several indicators documented convergent and divergent validity of the results: Pathological gamers spent twice as much time playing as nonpathological gamers and received poorer grades in school; pathological gaming also showed comorbidity with attention problems. Pathological status significantly predicted poorer school performance even after controlling for sex, age, and weekly amount of video-game play. These results confirm that pathological gaming can be measured reliably, that the construct demonstrates validity, and that it is not simply isomorphic with a high amount of play.
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              Development and Validation of a Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Behav Addict
                jba
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-5871
                2063-5303
                September 2014
                26 August 2014
                : 3
                : 3
                : 157-165
                Affiliations
                1IVO Addiction Research Institute, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                2Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                3Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UK
                4International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Division, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK
                5Bamford Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing, University of Ulster, Londonderry, UK
                6MRC All-Ireland Hub for Trials Methodology Research, University of Ulster, Londonderry, UK
                7Department of Health Promotion, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author: A. J. van Rooij, PhD; IVO Addiction Research Institute; Heemraadssingel 194, 3021 DM Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Phone: +31-10-4253366; Fax: +31-10-2763988; E-mail: rooij@ 123456ivo.nl
                Article
                jba.3.2014.013
                10.1556/JBA.3.2014.013
                4189309
                © 2014 Akadémiai Kiadó

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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