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      Foraging and mating behaviors of Hypsignathus monstrosus at the bat‐human interface in a central African rainforest

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          Abstract

          Studying wildlife space use in human‐modified environments contributes to characterize wildlife‐human interactions to assess potential risks of zoonotic‐pathogens transmission, and to pinpoint conservation issues. In central African rainforests with human dwelling and activities, we conducted a telemetry study on a group of males of Hypsignathus monstrosus, a lek‐mating fruit bat identified as a potential maintenance host for Ebola virus. During a lekking season in 2020, we investigated the foraging‐habitat selection and the individual nighttime space use during both mating and foraging activities close to villages and their surrounding agricultural landscape. At night, marked individuals strongly selected agricultural lands and more generally areas near watercourses to forage, where they spent more time compared to forest ones. Furthermore, the probability and duration of the presence of bats in the lek during nighttime decreased with the distance to their roost site but remained relatively high within a 10 km radius. Individuals adjusted foraging behaviors according to mating activity by reducing both the overall time spent in foraging areas and the number of forest areas used to forage when they spent more time in the lek. Finally, the probability of a bat revisiting a foraging area in the following 48 hours increased with the previous time spent in that foraging area. These behaviors occurring close to or in human‐modified habitats can trigger direct and indirect bat‐human contacts, which could thus facilitate pathogen transmission such as Ebola virus.

          Abstract

          Wild animals may adapt or not to human‐altered landscapes and interact with humans. In this field study, we highlighted that an African fruit bat species primarily forages in agricultural lands and watercourses that surround small forestry villages. We also provide insights about space use dynamic of individuals during their nocturnal foraging and breeding activities. These data improve basic knowledge about the interface between fruit bats and human rural communities and highlight potential mechanisms for pathogen transmission.

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          2016 Guidelines of the American Society of Mammalogists for the use of wild mammals in research and education

          Abstract Guidelines for use of wild mammal species in research are updated from Sikes et al. (2011) . These guidelines cover current professional techniques and regulations involving the use of mammals in research and teaching; they also incorporate new resources, procedural summaries, and reporting requirements. Included are details on capturing, marking, housing, and humanely killing wild mammals. It is recommended that Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs), regulatory agencies, and investigators use these guidelines as a resource for protocols involving wild mammals, whether studied in the field or in captivity. These guidelines were prepared and approved by the American Society of Mammalogists (ASM), in consultation with professional veterinarians experienced in wildlife research and IACUCs, whose collective expertise provides a broad and comprehensive understanding of the biology of nondomesticated mammals. The current version of these guidelines and any subsequent modifications are available online on the Animal Care and Use Committee page of the ASM website ( http://mammalogy.org/uploads/committee_files/CurrentGuidelines.pdf ). Additional resources pertaining to the use of wild animals in research are available at: http://www.mammalsociety.org/committees/animal-care-and-use#tab3 . R esumen Los lineamientos para el uso de especies de mamíferos de vida silvestre en la investigación con base en Sikes et al. (2011) se actualizaron. Dichos lineamientos cubren técnicas y regulaciones profesionales actuales que involucran el uso de mamíferos en la investigación y enseñanza; también incorporan recursos nuevos, resúmenes de procedimientos y requisitos para reportes. Se incluyen detalles acerca de captura, marcaje, manutención en cautiverio y eutanasia de mamíferos de vida silvestre. Se recomienda que los comités institucionales de uso y cuidado animal (cifras en inglés: IACUCs), las agencias reguladoras y los investigadores se adhieran a dichos lineamientos como fuente base de protocolos que involucren mamíferos de vida silvestre, ya sea investigaciones de campo o en cautiverio. Dichos lineamientos fueron preparados y aprobados por la ASM, en consulta con profesionales veterinarios experimentados en investigaciones de vida silvestre y IACUCS, de quienes cuya experiencia colectiva provee un entendimiento amplio y exhaustivo de la biología de mamíferos no-domesticados. La presente versión de los lineamientos y modificaciones posteriores están disponibles en línea en la página web de la ASM, bajo Cuidado Animal y Comité de Uso: ( http://mammalogy.org/uploads/committee_files/CurrentGuidelines.pdf ). Recursos adicionales relacionados con el uso de animales de vida silvestre para la investigación se encuentran disponibles en ( http://www.mammalsociety.org/committees/animal-care-and-use#tab3 ).
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            Optimal foraging, the marginal value theorem.

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              Evaluating resource selection functions

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                elodie.schloesing@gmail.com
                Journal
                Ecol Evol
                Ecol Evol
                10.1002/(ISSN)2045-7758
                ECE3
                Ecology and Evolution
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                2045-7758
                08 July 2023
                July 2023
                : 13
                : 7 ( doiID: 10.1002/ece3.v13.7 )
                : e10240
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Faculté des Sciences Université de Montpellier Montpellier France
                [ 2 ] CIRAD, BIOS, UMR ASTRE Montpellier France
                [ 3 ] Faculté des Sciences et Techniques Université Marien Ngouabi Brazzaville Democratic Republic of the Congo
                [ 4 ] Ministère de l'Agriculture, de l'Elevage et de la Pêche Direction Générale de l'Elevage Brazzaville Democratic Republic of the Congo
                [ 5 ] Ministère de l'Economie Forestière Direction de la Faune et des aires Protégées Brazzaville Democratic Republic of the Congo
                [ 6 ] Faculdade de Veterinaria Universidade Eduardo Mondlane Maputo Mozambique
                [ 7 ] Université de Rennes 1, unité BOREA MNHN, CNRS 8067, SU, IRD 207, UCN UA Rennes France
                [ 8 ] Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, UMR 5175 Université de Montpellier, CNRS, EPHE, IRD Montpellier France
                [ 9 ] CIRAD, BIOS, UMR ASTRE Harare Zimbabwe
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence

                Elodie Schloesing, CIRAD, UMR ASTRE, Chemin de Baillarguet, 34980 Montferrier‐sur‐Lez, France.

                Email: elodie.schloesing@ 123456gmail.com

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8091-8193
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7668-1971
                Article
                ECE310240 ECE-2023-02-00280.R1
                10.1002/ece3.10240
                10329260
                37424939
                0d433631-3546-45b1-a33f-98ad4b95388b
                © 2023 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 03 June 2023
                : 20 February 2023
                : 15 June 2023
                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, Pages: 13, Words: 10057
                Funding
                Funded by: European Commission , doi 10.13039/501100000780;
                Award ID: FOOD/2016/379‐660
                Categories
                Applied Ecology
                Behavioural Ecology
                Movement Ecology
                Population Ecology
                Spatial Ecology
                Research Article
                Research Articles
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                July 2023
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:6.3.1 mode:remove_FC converted:08.07.2023

                Evolutionary Biology
                ebola virus,gps telemetry,hammer‐headed bat,movement ecology,republic of congo,resource selection function

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