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      Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and immune response to hepatitis B vaccination in Chinese college students mainly from the rural areas of western China and born before HBV vaccination integrated into expanded program of immunization

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          Epidemiological serosurvey of hepatitis B in China--declining HBV prevalence due to hepatitis B vaccination.

          To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), and hepatitis B core anti-body (anti-HBc) in a representative population in China 14 years after introduction of hepatitis B vaccination of infants. National serosurvey, with participants selected by multi-stage random sampling. Demographics and hepatitis B vaccination history collected by questionnaire and review of vaccination records, and serum tested for HBsAg, antibody to anti-HBc and anti-HBs by ELISA. The weighted prevalences of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc for Chinese population aged 1-59 years were 7.2%, 50.1%, 34.1%, respectively. HBsAg prevalence was greatly diminished among those age <15 years compared to that found in the 1992 national serosurvey, and among children age <5 years was only 1.0% (90% reduction). Reduced HBsAg prevalence was strongly associated with vaccination among all age groups. HBsAg risk in adults was associated with male sex, Western region, and certain ethnic groups and occupations while risk in children included birth at home or smaller hospitals, older age, and certain ethnic groups (Zhuang and other). China has already reached the national goal of reducing HBsAg prevalence to less than 1% among children under 5 years and has prevented an estimated 16-20 million HBV carriers through hepatitis B vaccination of infants. Immunization program should be further strengthened to reach those remaining at highest risk.
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            Hepatitis B and the need for a booster dose.

            After several decades of vaccination against hepatitis B virus in newborns, infants, adolescents, and adults, the question remains whether a booster dose is ever needed. Long-term protection is most commonly measured through 4 methods: the anamnestic response after administration of a booster dose, infection rate in vaccinated populations, in vitro B and T cell activity testing, and seroepidemiological studies. Long-term protection is present despite a decrease in anti-hepatitis B surface antibodies over time. The exact mechanism of long-term protection, however, is not yet fully understood. There is no need for boosters in immunologically potent persons as long as a full course was adequately administered that respected the recommended timelines, as evidenced by studies conducted up to 20 years after the original immunization course. However, a booster dose should be planned for immunocompromised patients, based on serological monitoring. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.
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              Nationwide hepatitis B vaccination program in Taiwan: effectiveness in the 20 years after it was launched.

              The national hepatitis B vaccination program in Taiwan is considered one of the most successful and effective public health programs to control chronic hepatitis B infection in the past 20 years. This review illustrates how to implement a successful hepatitis B vaccination program based on Taiwan's experience. Several important controlled randomized clinical trials on hepatitis B immunoglobulin and vaccine in Taiwan demonstrated an 80-90% protective effect among infants of mothers who were positive for either hepatitis B envelope antigen or hepatitis B surface antigen. A series of prevalence surveys on children born before and after the national vaccination program began disclosed a steady decrease in seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen in Taiwan, with 78-87% effectiveness after the national vaccination program was launched. Studies on the secular trend of liver disease risk also documented a 68% decline in mortality from fulminant hepatitis in infants and a 75% decrease in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in children 6-9 years of age after the national vaccination program began. In conclusion, since 1984, the national hepatitis B vaccination program has been successful in preventing acute and chronic liver diseases in Taiwan.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
                Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
                Informa UK Limited
                2164-5515
                2164-554X
                May 15 2014
                January 2014
                September 09 2013
                January 2014
                : 10
                : 1
                : 224-231
                Article
                10.4161/hv.26311
                © 2014
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