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      Lipid Dynamics, Identification, and Expression Patterns of Fatty Acid Synthase Genes in an Endoparasitoid, Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

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          Abstract

          In insect parasitoids, fatty acid synthases (FASs) have received less attention and their roles associated with lipogenesis loss are far from clear. Meteorus pulchricornis is a solitary endoparasitoid wasp of many larvae of lepidopteran pests. The lipid content during developmental stages of M. pulchricornis was measured; it was higher in the larval and pupal stages but declined from six-day-old pupae. Lipid accumulation constantly decreased in the adult stage, even after feeding on honey solutions. To investigate the roles of FASs in lipid synthesis in M. pulchricornis, four FAS genes ( MpulFAS1~4) were identified from the transcriptome database of M. pulchricornis. All FAS genes included full-length open reading frames and shared 72–79% similarity with the sequences of Microplitis demolitor. qRT-PCR validation showed that all four FASs had the highest expression after the adult wasps were fed on honey diets. MpulFAS1 and MpulFAS2 reached their expression peaks at the adult stage but MpulFAS3 and MpulFAS4 peaked at the larval stage. To further study the function of FASs, dsRNA injection knocked down the expression of four MpulFASs and resulted in a significant decline of lipid content at the adult stage in M. pulchricornis. Results from this study suggest that M. pulchricornis adults cannot accumulate lipid content effectively and FASs may still contribute to lipid synthesis in the adult stage. This broadens the knowledge on the ability of lipid synthesis in parasitoid wasps and provides insight into the roles of FASs in insects with parasitic life-history traits.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Continuous fatty acid oxidation and reduced fat storage in mice lacking acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2.

          Malonyl-coenzyme A (malonyl-CoA), generated by acetyl-CoA carboxylases ACC1 and ACC2, is a key metabolite in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Here, we show that Acc2-/- mutant mice have a normal life span, a higher fatty acid oxidation rate, and lower amounts of fat. In comparison to the wild type, Acc2-deficient mice had 10- and 30-fold lower levels of malonyl-CoA in heart and muscle, respectively. The fatty acid oxidation rate in the soleus muscle of the Acc2-/- mice was 30% higher than that of wild-type mice and was not affected by addition of insulin; however, addition of insulin to the wild-type muscle reduced fatty acid oxidation by 45%. The mutant mice accumulated 50% less fat in their adipose tissue than did wild-type mice. These results raise the possibility that pharmacological manipulation of ACC2 may lead to loss of body fat in the context of normal caloric intake.
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            Nutrient control of gene expression in Drosophila: microarray analysis of starvation and sugar-dependent response.

            We have identified genes regulated by starvation and sugar signals in Drosophila larvae using whole-genome microarrays. Based on expression profiles in the two nutrient conditions, they were organized into different categories that reflect distinct physiological pathways mediating sugar and fat metabolism, and cell growth. In the category of genes regulated in sugar-fed, but not in starved, animals, there is an upregulation of genes encoding key enzymes of the fat biosynthesis pathway and a downregulation of genes encoding lipases. The highest and earliest activated gene upon sugar ingestion is sugarbabe, a zinc finger protein that is induced in the gut and the fat body. Identification of potential targets using microarrays suggests that sugarbabe functions to repress genes involved in dietary fat breakdown and absorption. The current analysis provides a basis for studying the genetic mechanisms underlying nutrient signalling.
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              Resource acquisition, allocation, and utilization in parasitoid reproductive strategies.

              Parasitoids display remarkable inter- and intraspecific variation in their reproductive and associated traits. Adaptive explanations have been proposed for many of the between-trait relationships. We present an overview of the current knowledge of parasitoid reproductive biology, focusing on egg production strategies in females, by placing parasitoid reproduction within physiological and ecological contexts. Thus, we relate parasitoid reproduction both to inter- and intraspecific patterns of nutrient allocation, utilization, and acquisition, and to key aspects of host ecology, specifically abundance and dispersion pattern. We review the evidence that resource trade-offs underlie several key intertrait correlations and that reproductive and feeding strategies are closely integrated at both the physiological and the behavioral levels. The idea that parasitoids can be divided into capital-breeders or income-breeders is no longer tenable; such terminology is best restricted to the females' utilization of particular nutrients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                28 August 2020
                September 2020
                : 21
                : 17
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Sericultural Biology and Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212018, China; 189310018@ 123456stu.just.edu.cn (J.W.); 182211802108@ 123456stu.just.edu.cn (L.-W.S.); 172211801110@ 123456stu.just.edu.cn (X.-R.X.); 182211802210@ 123456stu.just.edu.cn (Y.-Q.X.); lyjc19961209@ 123456foxmail.com (Y.-J.L.); liuzhixiang1229@ 123456foxmail.com (Z.-X.L.); wangjun@ 123456just.edu.cn (J.W.); 198700001882@ 123456just.edu.cn (F.-A.W.)
                [2 ]The Key Laboratory of Silkworm and Mulberry Genetic Improvement, Ministry of Agriculture, Sericultural Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Zhenjiang 212018, China
                Author notes
                Article
                ijms-21-06228
                10.3390/ijms21176228
                7503466
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Molecular biology

                meteorus pulchricornis, lipid content, fatty acid synthase genes, lipogenesis

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