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      Significance of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin as a Biomarker for the Diagnosis of Diabetic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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          Background: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a promising marker for the diagnosis of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), but its utility is currently debated. This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the diagnostic value of NGAL for DKD. Method: MEDLINE, Embase, ­Cochrane Library, CNKI, and CBM databases were searched up to April 13, 2019. In bivariate random-effect models, the diagnostic performance of NGAL for DKD was assessed using pooled estimates of sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio, diagnostic odds ratio, and hierarchical summary receiver-operating characteristic analysis. Results: Nineteen studies were eligible for the meta-analysis. Serum NGAL had a pooled sensitivity and specificity of 0.79 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.60–0.91) and 0.87 (0.75–0.93) (7 studies, 1,238 patients). The pooled positive likelihood ratio (LR+) and negative likelihood ratio (LR–) were 5.97 (3.03–11.76) and 0.24 (0.11–0.51). For urine NGAL, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, LR+, and LR– were 0.85 (0.74–0.91), 0.74 (0.57–0.86), 3.26 (1.87–5.67), and 0.21 (0.12–0.35), respectively (10 studies, 1,369 patients). The pooled sensitivity and specificity for kidney disease in normoalbuminuric patients with diabetes was 0.90 (0.82–0.95) and 0.97 (0.90–0.99) for both serum NGAL and 0.94 (0.87–0.98) and 0.90 (0.81–0.96) for urine NGAL (4 studies, 221 patients). NGAL appeared to perform similarly in subgroup analysis. Conclusion: The meta-analysis has shown that NGAL may be useful for DKD classification and also has a potential diagnostic value for normoalbuminuric kidney disease. Large-scale prospective studies are required to clarify its role in the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with DKD.

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          Most cited references 33

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          KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines and Clinical Practice Recommendations for Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease.

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            Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin as an Early Biomarker of Nephropathy in Diabetic Patients

            Background/Aims: Renal tubulointerstitium plays an important role in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Methods: With the present study, we aimed at evaluating the levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a tubular stress protein, in serum (sNGAL) and urine (uNGAL) from a cohort of 56 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus categorized into three groups (normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria and diabetic nephropathy). Results: All groups showed increased NGAL values with respect to controls; interestingly, increased NGAL levels were already found in diabetic patients without early signs of glomerular damage (normoalbuminuric). Both sNGAL and uNGAL increased in parallel with the severity of renal disease, reaching higher levels in patients with manifest diabetic nephropathy. The assessment of Pearson coefficient evidenced significant relationships between sNGAL and, respectively, uNGAL, serum creatinine and GFR (inversely) and between uNGAL and, respectively, serum creatinine, proteinuria, albuminuria, serum albumin and GFR (both inversely). Conclusions: NGAL might play an important role in the pathophysiology of renal adaptation to diabetes, probably as a defensive mechanism aiming to mitigate tubular suffering. Furthermore, NGAL measurement might become a useful and noninvasive tool for the evaluation of renal involvement in diabetic patients as well as for the early diagnosis of incipient nephropathy.
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              Monomeric neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin is associated with tubulointerstitial damage in chronic kidney disease

              The rate of progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is difficult to predict using single measurements of serum creatinine or proteinuria. On the other hand, documented tubulointerstitial disease presages worsening CKD, but kidney biopsy is not practical for routine use and generally does not sample the tubulointerstitial compartment of the medulla. Perhaps a urine test that correlates with specific histological findings may serve as a surrogate for the kidney biopsy. Here we compared both immunoblot analysis (under non-reducing conditions) and a commercially available monomer immunoassays of Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) with pathological changes found in kidney biopsies, to determine whether specific histological characteristics associated with a specific NGAL species. We found that the urine of patients with advanced CKD contained NGAL monomers as well as higher molecular weight complexes containing NGAL, identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectroscopy. The NGAL monomer significantly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. Hence, specific assays of the NGAL monomer implicate histology associated with progressive, severe CKD.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                July 2020
                03 July 2020
                : 45
                : 4
                : 497-509
                aDepartment of Nephrology, Xijin Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, China
                bGraduate School, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, China
                Author notes
                *Chen Huang, Department of Nephrology, Xijin Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 169 Changle West Road, Xi’an 710032 (China), huangchen@fmmu.edu.cn
                507858 Kidney Blood Press Res 2020;45:497–509
                © 2020 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, Pages: 13
                Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis


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