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      Expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors in the Developing Mouse Metanephros

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          Abstract

          While bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) 2, 4 and 7 have recently been implicated in aspects of metanephric development, and expression patterns of these ligands have been described in the developing metanephros, the distribution of BMP receptors in developing metanephroi remains unknown. In the present study, in situ hybridisation histochemistry was used to localise mRNAs for BMP type-I receptors (BMPR-IA and BMPR-IB) and the BMP type-II receptor (BMPR-II) in developing mouse metanephroi. At embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) and E14.5 transcripts for BMP type-I receptors were localised to the tips and body of the branching ureter as well as mesenchymal condensates, developing vesicles and comma-shaped bodies. Localisation of BMPR-II transcripts was similar although expression was not observed in the body of the ureter. At E17.5, transcripts for all three receptors were localised in the nephrogenic zone including ureteric tips, vesicles, comma- and S-shaped bodies as well the body of the ureter and in tubules. BMP type-I and type-II receptor transcripts co-localised with each other, in agreement with the well-documented evidence that BMPs signal via heterotetrameric complexes of type-I and type-II receptors and with the previously reported metanephric expression pattern of BMPs. These patterns of receptor expression suggest that these molecules are important regulators of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, nephron development and ureteric branching morphogenesis.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Phosphorylation of Ser465 and Ser467 in the C terminus of Smad2 mediates interaction with Smad4 and is required for transforming growth factor-beta signaling.

          Members of the Smad family of intracellular signal transducers are essential for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) to exert its multifunctional effects. After activation of TGF-beta receptors, Smad2 and Smad3 become phosphorylated and form heteromeric complexes with Smad4. Thereafter, these activated Smad complexes translocate to the nucleus, where they may direct transcriptional responses. Here we report that TGF-beta mediates phosphorylation of Smad2 at two serine residues in the C terminus, i.e. Ser465 and Ser467, which are phosphorylated in an obligate order; phosphorylation of Ser465 requires that Ser467 be phosphorylated. Transfection of Smad2 with mutation of Ser465 and/or Ser467 to alanine residues into Mv1Lu cells resulted in dominant-negative inhibition of TGF-beta signaling. These Smad2 mutants were found to stably interact with an activated TGF-beta receptor complex, in contrast to wild-type Smad2, which interacts only transiently. Mutation of Ser465 and Ser467 in Smad2 abrogated complex formation of this mutant with Smad4 and blocked the nuclear accumulation not only of Smad2, but also of Smad4. Thus, heteromeric complex formation of Smad2 with Smad4 is required for nuclear translocation of Smad4. Moreover, peptides from the C terminus of Smad2 containing phosphorylated Ser465 and Ser467 were found to bind Smad4 in vitro, whereas the corresponding unphosphorylated peptides were less effective. Thus, phosphorylated Ser465 and Ser467 in Smad2 may provide a recognition site for interaction with Smad4, and phosphorylation of these sites is a key event in Smad2 activation.
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            Overlapping expression domains of bone morphogenetic protein family members potentially account for limited tissue defects in BMP7 deficient embryos.

            BMP7 is expressed at diverse sites in the developing mouse embryo, including visceral endoderm, notochord, heart, eye, kidney, and bone. A null mutation in BMP7 results in defects largely confined to the developing kidney and eye. To examine whether other bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family members potentially substitute for BMP7 in mutant embryos, thereby restricting the observed defects, we analyzed the expression patterns of BMP2 through BMP7 in wild-type and mutant tissues. In the central nervous system and heart, which develop normally in the absence of BMP7 signaling, expression domains of other BMP family members completely overlap with that of BMP7. The variable expressivity of the eye defect correlates with partially overlapping BMP4 and BMP7 expression domains during early eye induction. The loss of BMP7 signaling in the kidney results in apoptosis in the metanephric mesenchyme, a cell population that exclusively expresses BMP7. Thus, tissue defects observed in BMP7 deficient embryos are restricted to cell populations exclusively expressing BMP7. These data suggest that BMP family members can functionally substitute for BMP7 at sites where they colocalize in vivo.
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              Identification of a human type II receptor for bone morphogenetic protein-4 that forms differential heteromeric complexes with bone morphogenetic protein type I receptors.

              Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) comprise the largest subfamily of TGF-beta-related ligands and are known to bind to type I and type II receptor serine/threonine kinases. Although several mammalian BMP type I receptors have been identified, the mammalian BMP type II receptors have remained elusive. We have isolated a cDNA encoding a novel transmembrane serine/threonine kinase from human skin fibroblasts which we demonstrate here to be a type II receptor that binds BMP-4. This receptor (BRK-3) is distantly related to other known type II receptors and is distinguished from them by an extremely long carboxyl-terminal sequence following the intracellular kinase domain. The BRK-3 gene is widely expressed in a variety of adult tissues. When expressed alone in COS cells, BRK-3 specifically binds BMP-4, but cross-linking of BMP-4 to BRK-3 is undetectable in the absence of either the BRK-1 or BRK-2 BMP type I receptors. Cotransfection of BRK-2 with BRK-3 greatly enhanced affinity labeling of BMP-4 to the type I receptor, in contrast to the affinity labeling pattern observed with the BRK-1 + BRK-3 heteromeric complex. Furthermore, a subpopulation of super-high affinity binding sites is formed in COS cells upon cotransfection only of BRK-2 + BRK-3, suggesting that the different heteromeric BMP receptor complexes have different signaling potential.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                EXN
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2001
                2001
                07 November 2001
                : 9
                : 6
                : 372-379
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Anatomy and Cell Biology, and bInstitute of Reproduction and Development, Monash University, Clayton, Vic., Australia, cDepartment of Pathology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Tex., USA, and dDepartment of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic., Australia
                Article
                52635 Exp Nephrol 2001;9:372–379
                10.1159/000052635
                11701996
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 25, Pages: 8
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/52635
                Categories
                Original Paper

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