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      Preoperative risk and postoperative outcome from subdural fluid collections in African infants with postinfectious hydrocephalus

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          This study investigated the incidence of postoperative subdural collections in a cohort of African infants with postinfectious hydrocephalus. The authors sought to identify preoperative factors associated with increased risk of development of subdural collections and to characterize associations between subdural collections and postoperative outcomes.


          The study was a post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial at a single center in Mbale, Uganda, involving infants (age < 180 days) with postinfectious hydrocephalus randomized to receive either an endoscopic third ventriculostomy plus choroid plexus cauterization or a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Patients underwent assessment with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III; sometimes referred to as BSID-III) and CT scans preoperatively and then at 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. Volumes of brain, CSF, and subdural fluid were calculated, and z-scores from the median were determined from normative curves for CSF accumulation and brain growth. Linear and logistic regression models were used to characterize the association between preoperative CSF volume and the postoperative presence and size of subdural collection 6 and 12 months after surgery. Linear regression and smoothing spline ANOVA were used to describe the relationship between subdural fluid volume and cognitive scores. Causal mediation analysis distinguished between the direct and indirect effects of the presence of a subdural collection on cognitive scores.


          Subdural collections were more common in shunt-treated patients and those with larger preoperative CSF volumes. Subdural fluid volumes were linearly related to preoperative CSF volumes. In terms of outcomes, the Bayley-III cognitive score was linearly related to subdural fluid volume. The distribution of cognitive scores was significantly different for patients with and those without subdural collections from 11 to 24 months of age. The presence of a subdural collection was associated with lower cognitive scores and smaller brain volume 12 months after surgery. Causal mediation analysis demonstrated evidence supporting both a direct (76%) and indirect (24%) effect (through brain volume) of subdural collections on cognitive scores.


          Larger preoperative CSF volume and shunt surgery were found to be risk factors for postoperative subdural collection. The size and presence of a subdural collection were negatively associated with cognitive outcomes and brain volume 12 months after surgery. These results have suggested that preoperative CSF volumes could be used for risk stratification for treatment decision-making and that future clinical trials of alternative shunt technologies to reduce overdrainage should be considered.

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          Smoothing Spline ANOVA Models

          Chong Gu (2002)
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            Chronic subdural hematoma in the elderly: not a benign disease.

            Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is perceived to be a "benign," easily treated condition in the elderly, but reported follow-up periods are brief, usually limited to acute hospitalization. The authors conducted a retrospective review of data obtained in a prospectively identified consecutive series of adult patients admitted to their institution between September 2000 and February 2008 and in whom there was a CT diagnosis of CSDH. Survival data were compared to life-table data. Of the 209 cases analyzed, 63% were men and the mean age was 80.6 years (range 65-96 years). Primary surgical interventions performed were bur holes in 21 patients, twist-drill closed-system drainage in 44, and craniotomies in 72. An additional 72 patients were simply observed. Reoperations were recorded in 5 patients-4 who had previously undergone twist-drill drainage and 1 who had previously undergone a bur hole procedure (p = 0.41, chi-square analysis). Thirty-five patients (16.7%) died in hospital, 130 were discharged to rehabilitation or a skilled care facility, and 44 returned home. The follow-up period extended to a maximum of 8.3 years (median 1.45 years). Six-month and 1-year mortality rates were 26.3% and 32%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis (step-wise logistic regression), the sole factor that predicted in-hospital death was neurological status on admission (OR 2.1, p = 0.02, for each step). Following discharge, the median survival in the remaining cohort was 4.4 years. In the Cox proportional hazards model, only age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.06/year, p = 0.02) and discharge to home (HR 0.24, p = 0.01) were related to survival, whereas the type of intervention, whether surgery was performed, size of subdural hematoma, amount of shift, bilateral subdural hematomas, and anticoagulant agent use did not affect the long- or short-term mortality rate. Comparison of postdischarge survival and anticipated actuarial survival demonstrated a markedly increased mortality rate in the CSDH group (median survival 4.4 vs 6 years, respectively; HR 1.94, p = 0.0002, log-rank test). This excess mortality rate was also observed at 6 months postdischarge with evidence of normalization only at 1 year. In this first report of the long-term outcome of elderly patients with CSDH the authors observed persistent excess mortality up to 1 year beyond diagnosis. This belies the notion that CSDH is a benign disease and indicates it is a marker of other underlying chronic diseases similar to hip fracture.
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              Endoscopic Treatment versus Shunting for Infant Hydrocephalus in Uganda

              BACKGROUND Postinfectious hydrocephalus in infants is a major health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The conventional treatment is ventriculoperitoneal shunting, but surgeons are usually not immediately available to revise shunts when they fail. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy with choroid plexus cauterization (ETV–CPC) is an alternative treatment that is less subject to late failure but is also less likely than shunting to result in a reduction in ventricular size that might facilitate better brain growth and cognitive outcomes. METHODS We conducted a randomized trial to evaluate cognitive outcomes after ETV–CPC versus ventriculoperitoneal shunting in Ugandan infants with postinfectious hydrocephalus. The primary outcome was the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition (BSID-3), cognitive scaled score 12 months after surgery (scores range from 1 to 19, with higher scores indicating better performance). The secondary outcomes were BSID-3 motor and language scores, treatment failure (defined as treatment-related death or the need for repeat surgery), and brain volume measured on computed tomography. RESULTS A total of 100 infants were enrolled; 51 were randomly assigned to undergo ETV–CPC, and 49 were assigned to undergo ventriculoperitoneal shunting. The median BSID-3 cognitive scores at 12 months did not differ significantly between the treatment groups (a score of 4 for ETV–CPC and 2 for ventriculoperitoneal shunting; Hodges–Lehmann estimated difference, 0; 95% confidence interval [CI], −2 to 0; P = 0.35). There was no significant difference between the ETV–CPC group and the ventriculoperitoneal-shunt group in BSID-3 motor or language scores, rates of treatment failure (35% and 24%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.3 to 1.5; P = 0.24), or brain volume (z score, −2.4 and −2.1, respectively; estimated difference, 0.3; 95% CI, −0.3 to 1.0; P = 0.12). CONCLUSIONS This single-center study involving Ugandan infants with postinfectious hydrocephalus showed no significant difference between endoscopic ETV–CPC and ventriculoperitoneal shunting with regard to cognitive outcomes at 12 months. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01936272.)

                Author and article information

                Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics
                Journal of Neurosurgery Publishing Group (JNSPG)
                January 01 2022
                January 01 2022
                : 29
                : 1
                : 31-39
                [1 ]Department of Neurosurgery, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey;
                [2 ]Center for Neural Engineering, Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park;
                [3 ]Department of Public Health Sciences, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey;
                [4 ]CURE Children’s Hospital of Uganda, Mbale;
                [5 ]Mulago National Referral Hospital, Kampala, Uganda;
                [6 ]Division of Neurosurgery, University of Toronto, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto;
                [7 ]Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and
                [8 ]School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park;
                [9 ]Department of Neurosurgery, Boston Children’s Hospital and Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
                [10 ]Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania;
                © 2022


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