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      Berry polyphenols metabolism and impact on human gut microbiota and health

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          Abstract

          Berries are rich in phenolic compounds such as phenolic acids, flavonols and anthocyanins.

          Abstract

          Berries are rich in phenolic compounds such as phenolic acids, flavonols and anthocyanins. These molecules are often reported as being responsible for the health effects attributed to berries. However, their poor bioavailability, mostly influenced by their complex chemical structures, raises the question of their actual direct impact on health. The products of their metabolization, however, may be the most bioactive compounds due to their ability to enter the blood circulation and reach the organs. The main site of metabolization of the complex polyphenols to smaller phenolic compounds is the gut through the action of microorganisms, and reciprocally polyphenols and their metabolites can also modulate the microbial populations. In healthy subjects, these modulations generally lead to an increase in Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Akkermansia, therefore suggesting a prebiotic-like effect of the berries or their compounds. Finally, berries have been demonstrated to alleviate symptoms of gut inflammation through the modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and have chemopreventive effects towards colon cancer through the regulation of apoptosis, cell proliferation and angiogenesis. This review recapitulates the knowledge available on the interactions between berries polyphenols, gut microbiota and gut health and identifies knowledge gaps for future research.

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          Benefits of polyphenols on gut microbiota and implications in human health.

          The biological properties of dietary polyphenols are greatly dependent on their bioavailability that, in turn, is largely influenced by their degree of polymerization. The gut microbiota play a key role in modulating the production, bioavailability and, thus, the biological activities of phenolic metabolites, particularly after the intake of food containing high-molecular-weight polyphenols. In addition, evidence is emerging on the activity of dietary polyphenols on the modulation of the colonic microbial population composition or activity. However, although the great range of health-promoting activities of dietary polyphenols has been widely investigated, their effect on the modulation of the gut ecology and the two-way relationship "polyphenols ↔ microbiota" are still poorly understood. Only a few studies have examined the impact of dietary polyphenols on the human gut microbiota, and most were focused on single polyphenol molecules and selected bacterial populations. This review focuses on the reciprocal interactions between the gut microbiota and polyphenols, the mechanisms of action and the consequences of these interactions on human health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Interaction between phenolics and gut microbiota: role in human health.

            Dietary phenolic compounds are often transformed before absorption. This transformation modulates their biological activity. Different studies have been carried out to understand gut microbiota transformations of particular polyphenol types and identify the responsible microorganisms. Although there are potentially thousands of different phenolic compounds in the diet, they are typically transformed to a much smaller number of metabolites. The aim of this review was to discuss the current information about the microbial degradation metabolites obtained from different phenolics and their formation pathways, identifying their differences and similarities. The modulation of gut microbial population by phenolics was also reviewed in order to understand the two-way phenolic-microbiota interaction. Clostridium and Eubacterium genera, which are phylogenetically associated, are other common elements involved in the metabolism of many phenolics. The health benefits from phenolic consumption should be attributed to their bioactive metabolites and also to the modulation of the intestinal bacterial population.
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              Antimicrobial properties of phenolic compounds from berries.

              To investigate the antimicrobial properties of phenolic compounds present in Finnish berries against probiotic bacteria and other intestinal bacteria, including pathogenic species. Antimicrobial activity of pure phenolic compounds representing flavonoids and phenolic acids, and eight extracts from common Finnish berries, was measured against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species, including probiotic bacteria and the intestinal pathogen Salmonella. Antimicrobial activity was screened by an agar diffusion method and bacterial growth was measured in liquid culture as a more accurate assay. Myricetin inhibited the growth of all lactic acid bacteria derived from the human gastrointestinal tract flora but it did not affect the Salmonella strain. In general, berry extracts inhibited the growth of Gram-negative but not Gram-positive bacteria. These variations may reflect differences in cell surface structures between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Cloudberry, raspberry and strawberry extracts were strong inhibitors of Salmonella. Sea buckthorn berry and blackcurrant showed the least activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Different bacterial species exhibit different sensitivities towards phenolics. These properties can be utilized in functional food development and in food preservative purposes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                FFOUAI
                Food & Function
                Food Funct.
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                2042-6496
                2042-650X
                January 29 2020
                2020
                : 11
                : 1
                : 45-65
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Food Science
                [2 ]University of Arkansas
                [3 ]USA
                [4 ]Department of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology
                [5 ]Elson Floyd School of Medicine
                Article
                10.1039/C9FO01634A
                © 2020

                http://rsc.li/journals-terms-of-use

                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C9FO01634A

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