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      Production of recombinant antibodies using bacteriophages

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          Recombinant antibody fragments such as Fab, scFv, diabodies, triabodies, single domain antibodies and minibodies have recently emerged as potential alternatives to monoclonal antibodies, which can be engineered using phage display technology. These antibodies match the strengths of conventionally produced monoclonal antibodies and offer advantages for the development of immunodiagnostic kits and assays. These fragments not only retain the specificity of the whole monoclonal antibodies but also easy to express and produce in prokaryotic expression system. Further, these antibody fragments are genetically stable, less expensive, easy to modify in response to viral mutations and safer than monoclonal antibodies for use in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This review describes the potential of antibody fragments generated using phage display and their use as diagnostic reagents.

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          Most cited references 54

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          Aptamers: an emerging class of molecules that rival antibodies in diagnostics.

          Antibodies, the most popular class of molecules providing molecular recognition needs for a wide range of applications, have been around for more than three decades. As a result, antibodies have made substantial contributions toward the advancement of diagnostic assays and have become indispensable in most diagnostic tests that are used routinely in clinics today. The development of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) process, however, made possible the isolation of oligonucleotide sequences with the capacity to recognize virtually any class of target molecules with high affinity and specificity. These oligonucleotide sequences, referred to as "aptamers", are beginning to emerge as a class of molecules that rival antibodies in both therapeutic and diagnostic applications. Aptamers are different from antibodies, yet they mimic properties of antibodies in a variety of diagnostic formats. The demand for diagnostic assays to assist in the management of existing and emerging diseases is increasing, and aptamers could potentially fulfill molecular recognition needs in those assays. Compared with the bellwether antibody technology, aptamer research is still in its infancy, but it is progressing at a fast pace. The potential of aptamers may be realized in the near future in the form of aptamer-based diagnostic products in the market. In such products, aptamers may play a key role either in conjunction with, or in place of, antibodies. It is also likely that existing diagnostic formats may change according to the need to better harness the unique properties of aptamers.
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            Passive antibody therapy for infectious diseases.

            Antibody-based therapies are currently undergoing a renaissance. After being developed and then largely abandoned in the twentieth century, many antibody preparations are now in clinical use. However, most of the reagents that are available target non-infectious diseases. Interest in using antibodies to treat infectious diseases is now being fuelled by the wide dissemination of drug-resistant microorganisms, the emergence of new microorganisms, the relative inefficacy of antimicrobial drugs in immunocompromised hosts and the fact that antibody-based therapies are the only means to provide immediate immunity against biological weapons. Given the need for new antimicrobial therapies and many recent technological advances in the field of immunoglobulin research, there is considerable optimism regarding renewed applications of antibody-based therapy for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases.
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              Assembly of a functional immunoglobulin Fv fragment in Escherichia coli.

               A Skerra,  A Pluckthun (1988)
              An expression system was developed that allows the production of a completely functional antigen-binding fragment of an antibody in Escherichia coli. The variable domains of the phosphorylcholine-binding antibody McPC603 were secreted together into the periplasmic space, where protein folding as well as heterodimer association occurred correctly. Thus, the assembly pathway for the Fv fragment in E. coli is similar to that of a whole antibody in the eukaryotic cell. The Fv fragment of McPC603 was purified to homogeneity with an antigen-affinity column in a single step. The correct processing of both signal sequences was confirmed by amino-terminal protein sequencing. The functionality of the recombinant Fv fragment was demonstrated by equilibrium dialysis. These experiments showed that the affinity constant of the Fv fragment is identical to that of the native antibody McPC603, that there is one binding site for phosphorylcholine in the Fv fragment, and that there is no inactive protein in the preparation. This expression system should facilitate future protein engineering experiments on antibodies.

                Author and article information

                Role: General Manager and Head
                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó, co-published with Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V.
                1 June 2014
                : 4
                : 2
                : 91-98
                [ 1 ] Research and Development Center, Indian Immunologicals Limited, Rakshapuram, Gachibowli, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, 500032, India
                Author notes

                Both authors contributed equally.

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