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      Comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

      Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society

      Comorbidity, Hospitalization, statistics & numerical data, Humans, Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive, complications, Risk Factors, mortality, Risk Assessment

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          Abstract

          Comorbidities such as cardiac disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, osteoporosis, and psychological disorders are commonly reported in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but with great variability in reported prevalence. Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for many of these comorbidities as well as for COPD, making it difficult to draw conclusions about the relationship between COPD and these comorbidities. However, recent large epidemiologic studies have confirmed the independent detrimental effects of these comorbidities on patients with COPD. On the other hand, many of these comorbidities are now considered to be part of the commonly prevalent nonpulmonary sequelae of COPD that are relevant not only to the understanding of the real burden of COPD but also to the development of effective management strategies.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          18453370
          2645334
          10.1513/pats.200709-148ET

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