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      Isoliquiritigenin Attenuates UUO-Induced Renal Inflammation and Fibrosis by Inhibiting Mincle/Syk/NF-Kappa B Signaling Pathway

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global nephrotic syndrome characterized by chronic inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis in the kidney. Isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a flavonoid from licorice, has historically been reported to inhibit innate immune responses to inflammation and fibrosis in vivo. However, the effect of ISL on CKD progression is largely unknown.

          Materials and Methods

          In this study, we employed the inflammatory and fibrotic models of LPS/TGF-β-induced bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) in vitro and unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model in vivo to explore the potential effects and mechanism of ISL on renal inflammation and fibrosis.

          Results

          Our results manifest that ISL improved UUO-induced renal dysfunction and reduced tubular damage with a significantly downregulated mRNA expression and secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and MCP-1 in vitro and in vivo. It is worth noting that ISL can strongly inhibit the mRNA and protein expression of Mincle (macrophage-induced c-type lectin) in BMDM and UUO. ISL inhibited the phosphorylation of Syk and NF-kappa B and simultaneously reduced the expression of α-SMA and Col III in vivo and in vitro. More interestingly, when dealing with TDB, a ligand of Mincle, it revealed significant reversal of protein expression levels as that observed with ISL. The expressions of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, iNOS, p-Syk, p-NF-kappa B, α-SMA and FN in BMDM inflammatory model were significantly upregulated with TDB treatment. This confirms that ISL inhibits inflammation and fibrosis of macrophage by suppressing Mincle/Syk/NF-kappa B signaling pathway.

          Conclusion

          To conclude, ISL protects UUO-induced CKD by inhibiting Mincle-induced inflammation and suppressing renal fibrosis, which might be a specific renal protective mechanism of ISL, making it a novel drug to ameliorate CKD.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Macrophages: versatile players in renal inflammation and fibrosis

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            A novel LPS-inducible C-type lectin is a transcriptional target of NF-IL6 in macrophages.

            C-type lectins serve multiple functions through recognizing carbohydrate chains. Here we report a novel C-type lectin, macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle), as a downstream target of NF-IL6 in macrophages. NF-IL6 belongs to the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) of transcription factors and plays a crucial role in activated macrophages. However, what particular genes are regulated by NF-IL6 has been poorly defined in macrophages. Identification of downstream targets is required to elucidate the function of NF-IL6 in more detail. To identify downstream genes of NF-IL6, we screened a subtraction library constructed from wild-type and NF-IL6-deficient peritoneal macrophages and isolated Mincle that exhibits the highest homology to the members of group II C-type lectins. Mincle mRNA expression was strongly induced in response to several inflammatory stimuli, such as LPS, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IFN-gamma in wild-type macrophages. In contrast, NF-IL6-deficient macrophages displayed a much lower level of Mincle mRNA induction following treatment with these inflammatory reagents. The mouse Mincle proximal promoter region contains an indispensable NF-IL6 binding element, demonstrating that Mincle is a direct target of NF-IL6. The Mincle gene locus was mapped at 0.6 centiMorgans proximal to CD4 on mouse chromosome 6.
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              The role of Syk/CARD9 coupled C-type lectins in antifungal immunity

              Fungal infections are affecting an increasing number of people, and the failure of current therapies in treating systemic infection has resulted in an unacceptably high mortality rate. It is therefore of importance that we understand immune mechanisms operating during fungal infections, in order to facilitate development of adjunctive immunotherapies for the treatment of these diseases. C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that are critical for immune responses to fungi. Many of these receptors are coupled to Syk kinase, which allows these receptors to signal via CARD9 leading to NF-κB activation, which in turn contributes to the induction of both innate and adaptive immunity. Dectin-1, Dectin-2 and Mincle are all CLRs that share this common signalling mechanism and have been shown to play key roles in antifungal immunity. This review aims to update existing paradigms and summarise the most recent findings on these CLRs, their signal transduction mechanisms and the collaborations between these CLRs and other PRRs.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                DDDT
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                14 April 2020
                2020
                : 14
                : 1455-1468
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Research Center of Combine Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Affiliated Traditional Medicine Hospital, Southwest Medical University , Luzhou, Sichuan 646000, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Chengdu Medical College , Chengdu, Sichuan 610000, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Li Wang Research Center of Combine Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Affiliated Traditional Medicine Hospital, Southwest Medical University , 319 # Zhongshan Road, Luzhou, Sichuan646000, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 0830 3161222 Email wangli120@swmu.edu.cn
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                243420
                10.2147/DDDT.S243420
                7166058
                © 2020 Liao et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 1, References: 38, Pages: 14
                Categories
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                isoliquiritigenin, mincle, macrophage, ckd, inflammation, fibrosis

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