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      Molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in seagulls, pigeons, dogs, and cats in Thailand Translated title: Identification moléculaire de Cryptosporidium chez les mouettes, les pigeons, les chiens et les chats en Thaïlande

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          Zoonotic Cryptosporidium spp., particularly C. meleagridis, C. canis, and C. felis, are enteric protozoa responsible for major public health concerns around the world. To determine the spread of this parasite in Thailand, we conducted molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. from animal samples around the country, by collecting and investigating the feces of seagulls ( Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus and Chroicocephalus ridibundus), domestic pigeons ( Columba livia domestica), dogs, and cats. Seagull and pigeon samples were collected at the seaside and on the riverside to evaluate their potential for waterborne transmission. Ten pigeon samples were combined into one set, and a total of seven sets were collected. Seventy seagull samples were combined into one set, and a total of 13 sets were collected. In addition, 111 dog samples were collected from cattle farms, and 95 dog and 80 cat samples were collected from a temple. We identified C. meleagridis in pigeons, Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in seagulls, C. canis in dogs, and C. felis in cats. In the temple, the prevalence was 2.1% (2/95) for dogs and 2.5% (2/80) for cats. No Cryptosporidium was found in dog samples from cattle farms. These are the first findings of C. meleagridis in domestic pigeons, and Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in seagulls. Our study invites further molecular epidemiological investigations of C ryptosporidium in these animals and their environment to evaluate the public health risk in Thailand.

          Translated abstract

          Les espèces zoonotique de Cryptosporidium, particulièrement C. meleagridis, C. canis et C. felis, sont des protozoaires entériques responsables de préoccupations majeures de santé publique à travers le monde. Pour la détermination de la propagation de ce parasite en Thaïlande, nous avons effectué l’identification moléculaire de Cryptosporidium spp. à partir d’échantillons d’animaux de tout le pays, en recueillant et en examinant les excréments de mouettes ( Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus et Chroicocephalus ridibundus), pigeons domestiques ( Columba livia domestica), chiens et chats. Les échantillons provenant de mouettes et de pigeons ont été recueillis en bord de mer ou de rivière pour évaluer leur potentiel de transmission par les eaux. Dix échantillons de pigeons ont été combinés en un seul ensemble, et un total de sept ensembles ont été collectées. Soixante-dix échantillons de mouettes ont été combinés en un seul ensemble, et un total de 13 ensembles ont été collectés. En outre, 111 échantillons de chiens ont été recueillis dans des fermes de bétail, et 95 échantillons de chiens et 80 échantillons de chats ont été recueillis d’un temple. Nous avons identifié C. meleagridis chez les pigeons, Cryptosporidium génotype aviaire III chez les mouettes, C. canis chez les chiens, et C. felis chez les chats. Dans le temple, la prévalence était de 2.1 % (2/95) pour les chiens et 2.5 % (2/80) pour les chats. Cryptosporidium n’a pas été trouvé dans les échantillons de chiens de fermes de bovins. Ceci est la première mention de C. meleagridis chez les pigeons domestiques, et de Cryptosporidium génotype III aviaire chez les mouettes. Notre étude montre la nécessité d’autres enquêtes épidémiologiques moléculaire sur Cryptosporidium chez ces animaux et leur environnement pour évaluer le risque pour la santé publique en Thaïlande.

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          Most cited references 60

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          Taxonomy and species delimitation in Cryptosporidium.

           Ronald Fayer (2010)
          Amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals serve as hosts for 19 species of Cryptosporidium. All 19 species have been confirmed by morphological, biological, and molecular data. Fish serve as hosts for three additional species, all of which lack supporting molecular data. In addition to the named species, gene sequence data from more than 40 isolates from various vertebrate hosts are reported in the scientific literature or are listed in GenBank. These isolates lack taxonomic status and are referred to as genotypes based on the host of origin. Undoubtedly, some will eventually be recognized as species. For them to receive taxonomic status sufficient morphological, biological, and molecular data are required and names must comply with the rules of the International Code for Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN). Because the ICZN rules may be interpreted differently by persons proposing names, original names might be improperly assigned, original literature might be overlooked, or new scientific methods might be applicable to determining taxonomic status, the names of species and higher taxa are not immutable. The rapidly evolving taxonomic status of Cryptosporidium sp. reflects these considerations. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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            Cryptosporidium taxonomy: recent advances and implications for public health.

            There has been an explosion of descriptions of new species of Cryptosporidium during the last two decades. This has been accompanied by confusion regarding the criteria for species designation, largely because of the lack of distinct morphologic differences and strict host specificity among Cryptosporidium spp. A review of the biologic species concept, the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), and current practices for Cryptosporidium species designation calls for the establishment of guidelines for naming Cryptosporidium species. All reports of new Cryptosporidium species should include at least four basic components: oocyst morphology, natural host specificity, genetic characterizations, and compliance with the ICZN. Altogether, 13 Cryptosporidium spp. are currently recognized: C. muris, C. andersoni, C. parvum, C. hominis, C. wrairi, C. felis, and C. cannis in mammals; C. baïleyi, C. meleagridis, and C. galli in birds; C. serpentis and C. saurophilum in reptiles; and C. molnari in fish. With the establishment of a framework for naming Cryptosporidium species and the availability of new taxonomic tools, there should be less confusion associated with the taxonomy of the genus Cryptosporidium. The clarification of Cryptosporidium taxonomy is also useful for understanding the biology of Cryptosporidium spp., assessing the public health significance of Cryptosporidium spp. in animals and the environment, characterizing transmission dynamics, and tracking infection and contamination sources.
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              Molecular Surveillance of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi by Genotyping and Subtyping Parasites in Wastewater

               Na Li,  Lihua Xiao,  Lin Wang (2012)
              Background Despite their wide occurrence, cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are considered neglected diseases by the World Health Organization. The epidemiology of these diseases and microsporidiosis in humans in developing countries is poorly understood. The high concentration of pathogens in raw sewage makes the characterization of the transmission of these pathogens simple through the genotype and subtype analysis of a small number of samples. Methodology/Principal Findings The distribution of genotypes and subtypes of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in 386 samples of combined sewer systems from Shanghai, Nanjing and Wuhan and the sewer system in Qingdao in China was determined using PCR-sequencing tools. Eimeria spp. were also genotyped to assess the contribution of domestic animals to Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, and E. bieneusi in wastewater. The high occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. (56.2%), G. duodenalis (82.6%), E. bieneusi (87.6%), and Eimeria/Cyclospora (80.3%) made the source attribution possible. As expected, several human-pathogenic species/genotypes, including Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, G. duodenalis sub-assemblage A-II, and E. bieneusi genotype D, were the dominant parasites in wastewater. In addition to humans, the common presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Eimeria spp. from rodents indicated that rodents might have contributed to the occurrence of E. bieneusi genotype D in samples. Likewise, the finding of Eimeria spp. and Cryptosporidium baileyi from birds indicated that C. meleagridis might be of both human and bird origins. Conclusions/Significance The distribution of Cryptosporidium species, G. duodenalis genotypes and subtypes, and E. bieneusi genotypes in urban wastewater indicates that anthroponotic transmission appeared to be important in epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, and microsporidiosis in the study areas. The finding of different distributions of subtypes between Shanghai and Wuhan was indicative of possible differences in the source of C. hominis among different areas in China.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                10 October 2014
                : 21
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2014/01 )
                [1 ] Department of Protozoology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University Bangkok Thailand
                [2 ] Department of Tropical Pediatrics, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University Bangkok Thailand
                [3 ] Department of Helminthology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University Bangkok Thailand
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: aongart.mah@ 123456mahidol.ac.th
                parasite140040 10.1051/parasite/2014053
                © K. Koompapong et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 62, Pages: 7
                Research Article

                thailand, cryptosporidium, pigeon, seagull, dog, cat


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