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      Vasodilation Mediated by Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Is Impaired in Afferent Arterioles of Young Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

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          Abstract

          Renal vasoconstrictor action of angiotensin II (Ang II) is exaggerated in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) before development of hypertension. We have recently demonstrated that in the rabbit afferent arteriole (Af-Art) activation of the AT2 receptor causes vasodilation, which modulates the vasoconstrictor action of Ang II mediated by the AT1 receptor. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that vasoconstrictor action of Ang II is exaggerated in SHR Af-Arts due to an impaired function of the AT2 receptor before development of hypertension. Af-Arts were microdissected from the superficial cortex of 4- to 5-week-old SHR or age-matched Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), and perfused at 60 mm Hg in vitro. Ang II (10<sup>–11</sup> to 10<sup>–8</sup>  M) decreased the luminal diameter of Af-Arts of both strains in a dose-dependent manner. However, the constriction was stronger in SHR; at 10<sup>–10</sup>  M, the diameter decreased by 34 ± 4% in SHR (n = 6) compared to 18 ± 3% in WKY (n = 6; p < 0.01). Pretreatment with PD123319 (PD), an AT2 receptor antagonist, significantly augmented Ang II-induced constriction in WKY but not SHR Af-Arts; at 10<sup>–10</sup>  M, the diameter now decreased by 41 ± 5 and 37 ± 1% in SHR (n = 6) and WKY (n = 6), respectively. Thus, blockade of the AT2 receptor abolished the difference in Ang II action on Af-Arts between strains. Moreover, with the AT1 receptor blockade Ang II caused dose-dependent dilation of preconstricted Af-Arts only in WKY (27 ± 5% at 10<sup>–8</sup>  M, n = 5), and the dilation was abolished by simultaneous treatment with PD. In contrast, no such dilation was observed in SHR Af-Arts. These results suggest that activation of the AT2 receptor modulates AT1 receptor vasoconstriction in WKY Af-Arts, while impaired modulatory function of AT2 receptor may play a role in the exaggerated vasoconstrictor action of Ang II on the Af-Art of prehypertensive SHR.

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          Effects on blood pressure and exploratory behaviour of mice lacking angiotensin II type-2 receptor.

          There are two major angiotensin II receptor isoforms, AT1 and AT2. AT1 mediates the well-known pressor and mitogenic effects of angiotensin II, but the signalling mechanism and physiological role of AT2 has not been established. Its abundant expression in fetal tissues and certain brain nuclei suggest possible roles in growth, development and neuronal functions. Here we report the unexpected finding that the targeted disruption of the mouse AT2 gene resulted in a significant increase in blood pressure and increased sensitivity to the pressor action of angiotensin II. Thus AT2 mediates a depressor effect and antagonizes the AT1-mediated pressor action of angiotensin II. In addition, disruption of the AT2 gene attenuated exploratory behaviour and lowered body temperature. Our results show that angiotensin II activates AT1 and AT2, which have mutually counteracting haemodynamic effects, and that AT2 regulates central nervous system functions, including behaviour.
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            Behavioural and cardiovascular effects of disrupting the angiotensin II type-2 receptor in mice.

            Angiotensin II, a potent regulator of blood pressure and of water and electrolyte balance, binds to two different G-protein-coupled receptors. The type-1 receptor (AT1) mediates the vasopressive and aldosterone-secreting effects of angiotensin II, but the function of the type-2 receptor (AT2) is unknown, although it is expressed in both adult and embryonic life. To address this question, we have generated mice lacking the gene encoding the AT2 receptor. Mutant mice develop normally, but have an impaired drinking response to water deprivation as well as a reduction in spontaneous movements. Their baseline blood pressure is normal, but they show an increased vasopressor response to injection of angiotensin II. Thus, although the AT2 receptor is not required for embryonic development, it plays a role in the central nervous system and cardiovascular functions that are mediated by the renin-angiotensin system.
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              Agonistic and antagonistic properties of angiotensin analogs at the AT2 receptor in PC12W cells.

              Despite some recent reports describing the effects of AT2 receptor selective ligands in vitro and in vivo, the physiological function of this receptor is still a matter of debate. This problem stems amongst others from the difficulty in interpreting results from in vivo experiments with drugs of which it is not known whether they act as agonists or antagonists. We reported earlier that angiotensin II inhibits basal and atrial natriuretic peptide stimulated particulate guanylate cyclase activity through AT2 receptors in PC12W cells. We have used this parameter in intact PC12W cells in order to determine the pharmacological properties of different widely used angiotensin receptor ligands. We found CGP 42112 to behave as a full agonist in this system, whereas PD 123319 and Sar Ile angiotensin II act as antagonists. As expected, the AT1 antagonist losartan did not affect this response.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                1998
                December 1998
                23 September 2008
                : 35
                : 6
                : 421-427
                Affiliations
                Second Department of Internal Medicine, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan
                Article
                25613 J Vasc Res 1998;35:421–427
                10.1159/000025613
                9858867
                0da3b15b-ff2c-40aa-b085-51f8f0712cff
                © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 38, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Research Paper

                General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
                AT2 receptor,Microcirculation, renal,AT1 receptor,Vascular resistance, renal,Microperfusion

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