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      Prevalence of comorbidities and its effects in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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          Highlights

          • COVID -19 cases are now confirmed in multiple countries.

          • Assessed the prevalence of comorbidities in infected patients.

          • Comorbidities are risk factors for severe compared with non-severe patients.

          • Help the health sector guide vulnerable populations and assess the risk of deterioration.

          Abstract

          Background

          An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, China; the epidemic is more widespread than initially estimated, with cases now confirmed in multiple countries.

          Aims

          The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the prevalence of comorbidities in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected patients and the risk of underlying diseases in severe patients compared to non-severe patients.

          Methods

          A literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science through February 25, 2020. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using random-effects models.

          Results

          Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis, including 1 576 infected patients. The results showed the most prevalent clinical symptom was fever (91.3%, 95% CI: 86–97%), followed by cough (67.7%, 95% CI: 59–76%), fatigue (51.0%, 95% CI: 34–68%) and dyspnea (30.4%, 95% CI: 21–40%). The most prevalent comorbidities were hypertension (21.1%, 95% CI: 13.0–27.2%) and diabetes (9.7%, 95% CI: 7.2–12.2%), followed by cardiovascular disease (8.4%, 95% CI: 3.8–13.8%) and respiratory system disease (1.5%, 95% CI: 0.9–2.1%). When compared between severe and non-severe patients, the pooled OR of hypertension, respiratory system disease, and cardiovascular disease were 2.36 (95% CI: 1.46–3.83), 2.46 (95% CI: 1.76–3.44) and 3.42 (95% CI: 1.88–6.22) respectively.

          Conclusion

          We assessed the prevalence of comorbidities in the COVID-19 patients and found that underlying disease, including hypertension, respiratory system disease and cardiovascular disease, may be risk factors for severe patients compared with non-severe patients.

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          Most cited references14

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          Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China

          Summary Background A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. Methods All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not. Findings By Jan 2, 2020, 41 admitted hospital patients had been identified as having laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Most of the infected patients were men (30 [73%] of 41); less than half had underlying diseases (13 [32%]), including diabetes (eight [20%]), hypertension (six [15%]), and cardiovascular disease (six [15%]). Median age was 49·0 years (IQR 41·0–58·0). 27 (66%) of 41 patients had been exposed to Huanan seafood market. One family cluster was found. Common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (40 [98%] of 41 patients), cough (31 [76%]), and myalgia or fatigue (18 [44%]); less common symptoms were sputum production (11 [28%] of 39), headache (three [8%] of 38), haemoptysis (two [5%] of 39), and diarrhoea (one [3%] of 38). Dyspnoea developed in 22 (55%) of 40 patients (median time from illness onset to dyspnoea 8·0 days [IQR 5·0–13·0]). 26 (63%) of 41 patients had lymphopenia. All 41 patients had pneumonia with abnormal findings on chest CT. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (12 [29%]), RNAaemia (six [15%]), acute cardiac injury (five [12%]) and secondary infection (four [10%]). 13 (32%) patients were admitted to an ICU and six (15%) died. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had higher plasma levels of IL2, IL7, IL10, GSCF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα. Interpretation The 2019-nCoV infection caused clusters of severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and was associated with ICU admission and high mortality. Major gaps in our knowledge of the origin, epidemiology, duration of human transmission, and clinical spectrum of disease need fulfilment by future studies. Funding Ministry of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission.
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            Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China

            Abstract Background Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of the affected patients. Methods We extracted data regarding 1099 patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from 552 hospitals in 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China through January 29, 2020. The primary composite end point was admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. Results The median age of the patients was 47 years; 41.9% of the patients were female. The primary composite end point occurred in 67 patients (6.1%), including 5.0% who were admitted to the ICU, 2.3% who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, and 1.4% who died. Only 1.9% of the patients had a history of direct contact with wildlife. Among nonresidents of Wuhan, 72.3% had contact with residents of Wuhan, including 31.3% who had visited the city. The most common symptoms were fever (43.8% on admission and 88.7% during hospitalization) and cough (67.8%). Diarrhea was uncommon (3.8%). The median incubation period was 4 days (interquartile range, 2 to 7). On admission, ground-glass opacity was the most common radiologic finding on chest computed tomography (CT) (56.4%). No radiographic or CT abnormality was found in 157 of 877 patients (17.9%) with nonsevere disease and in 5 of 173 patients (2.9%) with severe disease. Lymphocytopenia was present in 83.2% of the patients on admission. Conclusions During the first 2 months of the current outbreak, Covid-19 spread rapidly throughout China and caused varying degrees of illness. Patients often presented without fever, and many did not have abnormal radiologic findings. (Funded by the National Health Commission of China and others.)
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              Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China

              In December 2019, novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-infected pneumonia (NCIP) occurred in Wuhan, China. The number of cases has increased rapidly but information on the clinical characteristics of affected patients is limited.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Int J Infect Dis
                Int. J. Infect. Dis
                International Journal of Infectious Diseases
                The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of International Society for Infectious Diseases.
                1201-9712
                1878-3511
                12 March 2020
                May 2020
                12 March 2020
                : 94
                : 91-95
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Gastroenterology, The First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China
                [b ]The First Clinical Medical School of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China
                [c ]Key Laboratory for Gastrointestinal Diseases of Gansu Province, The First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China
                [d ]Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Center, Department of Gastroenterology, The First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author at: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Center, Department of Gastroenterology, Key Laboratory for Gastrointestinal Diseases of Gansu Province, The First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, China. zhouyn@ 123456lzu.edu.cn
                [** ]Corresponding author at: Department of Gastroenterology, Key Laboratory for Gastrointestinal Diseases of Gansu Province, The First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, China. wangyuping@ 123456lzu.edu.cn
                [1]

                These authors contributed equally to the work.

                Article
                S1201-9712(20)30136-3
                10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.017
                7194638
                32173574
                0da41f10-819f-4a60-8b7c-f27dfc1b9733
                © 2020 The Authors

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                Categories
                Article

                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                sars-cov-2,covid-19,comorbidities,clinical characteristics,epidemiology,meta-analysis

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