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      The Effect of Melatonin on Analgesia, Anxiety, and Intraocular Pressure (IOP) in Cataract Surgery Under Topical Anesthesia

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          Abstract

          <p xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" class="first" dir="auto" id="d1243948e206">This study investigated the effect of oral melatonin as a premedication before cataract surgery on pain score, anxiety, surgical conditions, and intraocular pressure (IOP) during cataract surgery with phacoemulsification under topical anesthesia. </p>

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          The visual analog scale allows effective measurement of preoperative anxiety and detection of patients' anesthetic concerns.

          The advent of managed care, reduction of costs, and advances in medical technology place increasing demands on anesthesiologists. Preoperative anxiety may go unnoticed in an environment that stresses increased productivity. The present study compares different methods for measuring preoperative anxiety, identifies certain patient characteristics that predispose to high anxiety, and describes the quantity and quality of anxiety that patients experience preoperatively. Seven hundred thirty-four patients participated in the study. We assessed aspects of anxiety by means of visual analog scales (VAS) and the State Anxiety Score of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The mean STAI anxiety score was 39 +/- 1 (n = 486) and the mean VAS for fear of anesthesia was 29 +/- 1 (n = 539). Patients feared surgery significantly more than anesthesia (P < 0.001). The VAS measuring fear of anesthesia correlated well with the STAI score (r = 0.55; P < 0.01). Young patients, female patients, and patients with no previous anesthetic experience or a previous negative anesthetic experience had higher anxiety scores. Patients worried most about the waiting period preceding surgery and were least concerned about possible awareness intraoperatively. Factor analysis of various anxiety items showed three distinct dimensions of fear: 1) the fear of the unknown 2) the fear of feeling ill, and 3) the fear for one's life. Among these dimensions, fear of the unknown correlated highest with the anxiety measuring techniques STAI and VAS. The simple VAS proved to be a useful and valid measure of preoperative anxiety. The study of qualitative aspects of anxiety reveals three distinct dimensions of preoperative fear: fear of the unknown, fear of feeling ill, and fear for one's life. Groups of patients with a higher degree of preoperative anxiety and their specific anesthetic concerns can be identified using the visual analog scale.
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            Effects of exogenous melatonin on sleep: a meta-analysis.

            Exogenous melatonin reportedly induces drowsiness and sleep, and may ameliorate sleep disturbances, including the nocturnal awakenings associated with old age. However, existing studies on the soporific efficacy of melatonin have been highly heterogeneous in regard to inclusion and exclusion criteria, measures to evaluate insomnia, doses of the medication, and routes of administration. We reviewed and analyzed (by meta-analysis) available information on effects of exogenous melatonin on sleep. A MEDLINE search (1980 to December 2003) provided English-language articles, supplemented by personal files maintained by the authors. The analysis used information derived from 17 different studies (involving 284 subjects) that satisfied inclusion criteria. Sleep onset latency, total sleep duration, and sleep efficiency were selected as the outcome measures. The study effect size was taken to be the difference between the response on placebo and the mean response on melatonin for each outcome measured. Melatonin treatment significantly reduced sleep onset latency by 4.0 min (95% CI 2.5, 5.4); increased sleep efficiency by 2.2% (95% CI 0.2, 4.2), and increased total sleep duration by 12.8 min (95% CI 2.9, 22.8). Since 15 of the 17 studies enrolled healthy subjects or people with no relevant medical condition other than insomnia, the analysis was also done including only these 15 studies. The sleep onset results were changed to 3.9 min (95% CI (2.5, 5.4)); sleep efficiency increased to 3.1% (95% CI (0.7, 5.5)); sleep duration increased to 13.7 min (95% CI (3.1, 24.3)).
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              Melatonin and human rhythms.

              Melatonin signals time of day and time of year in mammals by virtue of its pattern of secretion, which defines 'biological night.' It is supremely important for research on the physiology and pathology of the human biological clock. Light suppresses melatonin secretion at night using pathways involved in circadian photoreception. The melatonin rhythm (as evidenced by its profile in plasma, saliva, or its major metabolite, 6-sulphatoxymelatonin [aMT6s] in urine) is the best peripheral index of the timing of the human circadian pacemaker. Light suppression and phase-shifting of the melatonin 24 h profile enables the characterization of human circadian photoreception, and circulating concentrations of the hormone are used to investigate the general properties of the human circadian system in health and disease. Suppression of melatonin by light at night has been invoked as a possible influence on major disease risk as there is increasing evidence for its oncostatic effects. Exogenous melatonin acts as a 'chronobiotic.' Acutely, it increases sleep propensity during 'biological day.' These properties have led to successful treatments for serveal circadian rhythm disorders. Endogenous melatonin acts to reinforce the functioning of the human circadian system, probably in many ways. The future holds much promise for melatonin as a research tool and as a therapy for various conditions.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing
                Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing
                Elsevier BV
                10899472
                April 2023
                April 2023
                : 38
                : 2
                : 253-257
                Article
                10.1016/j.jopan.2022.05.081
                36323602
                0da4c0ae-a82b-4f12-986a-29203e458b44
                © 2023

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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