To examine the influence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) emissions from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) on the environment, we measured the levels of PCDD/Fs in ambient air and soil samples collected near a MSWI in Bucheon, Korea. The PCDD/Fs concentrations in the ambient air samples ranged from 0.22 to 1.16 pg I-TEQm(-3) (13.39-75.16 pg m(-3)), with an average of 0.66 pg I-TEQ m(-3) (35.62 pg m(-3)). The soil samples contained between 1.25 and 74.98 pg I-TEQ g(-1) (38.15-3,303.33 pg g(-1)), with an average of 19.06 pg I-TEQ g(-1) (1,077.11 pg g(-1)). These levels were higher than those previously reported by other investigators in a number of surveys. The furan homologues predominated in the air samples and some soil samples, and the soil PCDD/Fs levels decreased with increasing distance from the MSWI. Comparison of the homologue patterns and a multivariate statistical analysis showed that PCDD/Fs emission from the MSWI directly affected the pattern of PCDD/Fs in air, while the PCDD/Fs patterns in soil differed according to the location relative to the MSWI, roads, and construction sites. These results collectively indicate that the MSWI was the major PCDD/Fs emission source in this area, but that unidentified combustion sources and vehicles might influence the environment to some extent.