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      A Feasibility Study for Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection Using an IGRA Point-of-Care Platform in South Korea

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Purpose

          This study aimed to evaluate ichroma™ IGRA-TB, a novel point-of-care platform for assaying IFN-γ release, and to compare it with QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) for identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M. tb) infection.

          Materials and Methods

          We recruited 60 healthy subjects, and blood samples were obtained in QFT-GIT blood collection tubes. The blood collection tubes were incubated at 37℃, and culture supernatant was harvested after 18–24 hours. IFN-γ responses were assessed by the ichroma™ IGRA-TB cartridge and the QFT-GIT IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Three active TB patients were recruited as a positive control for M. tb infection.

          Results

          The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the ichroma™ IGRA-TB test for differentiating between infected and non-infected individuals was 0.9706 ( p<0.001). Inconsistent positivity between the two tests was found in three participants who showed weak positive IFN-γ responses (<1.0 IU/mL) with QFT-GIT. However, the two tests had excellent agreement (95.2%, κ=0.91, p<0.001), and a very strong positive correlation was observed between the IFN-γ values of both tests (r=0.91, p<0.001).

          Conclusion

          The diagnostic accuracy demonstrated in this study indicates that the ichroma™ IGRA-TB test could be used as a rapid diagnostic method for detecting latent TB infection. It may be particularly beneficial in resource-limited places that require cost-effective laboratory diagnostics.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Estimation of the Youden Index and its associated cutoff point.

          The Youden Index is a frequently used summary measure of the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve. It both, measures the effectiveness of a diagnostic marker and enables the selection of an optimal threshold value (cutoff point) for the marker. In this paper we compare several estimation procedures for the Youden Index and its associated cutoff point. These are based on (1) normal assumptions; (2) transformations to normality; (3) the empirical distribution function; (4) kernel smoothing. These are compared in terms of bias and root mean square error in a large variety of scenarios by means of an extensive simulation study. We find that the empirical method which is the most commonly used has the overall worst performance. In the estimation of the Youden Index the kernel is generally the best unless the data can be well transformed to achieve normality whereas in estimation of the optimal threshold value results are more variable.
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            Interferon-gamma assays in the immunodiagnosis of tuberculosis: a systematic review.

            A major challenge in tuberculosis control is the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection. Until recently, there were no alternatives to the tuberculin skin test (TST) for diagnosing latent tuberculosis. However, an alternative has now emerged in the form of a new in-vitro test: the interferon-gamma assay. We did a systematic review to assess the performance of interferon-gamma assays in the immunodiagnosis of tuberculosis. By searching databases, contacting experts and test manufacturers, we identified 75 relevant studies. The results suggest that interferon-gamma assays that use Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific region of difference 1 (RD1) antigens (such as early secretory antigenic target 6 and culture filtrate protein 10) may have advantages over the TST, in terms of higher specificity, better correlation with exposure to M tuberculosis, and less cross-reactivity due to BCG vaccination and non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection. However, interferon-gamma assays that use RD1 antigens in isolation may maximise specificity at the cost of sensitivity. Assays that use cocktails of RD1 antigens seem to overcome this problem, and such assays have the highest accuracy. RD1-based interferon-gamma assays can potentially identify those with latent tuberculosis who are at high risk for developing active disease, but this requires confirmation. There is inadequate evidence on the value of interferon-gamma assays in the management of immunocompromised individuals, children, patients with extrapulmonary or non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease, and populations in countries where tuberculosis is endemic. Current evidence suggests that interferon-gamma assays based on cocktails of RD1 antigens have the potential to become useful diagnostic tools. Whether this potential can be realised in practice remains to be confirmed in well designed, long-term studies.
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              Point-of-Care Testing for Infectious Diseases: Diversity, Complexity, and Barriers in Low- And Middle-Income Countries

              Madhukar Pai and colleagues discuss a framework for envisioning how point-of-care testing can be applied to infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Yonsei Med J
                Yonsei Med. J
                YMJ
                Yonsei Medical Journal
                Yonsei University College of Medicine
                0513-5796
                1976-2437
                01 April 2019
                19 March 2019
                : 60
                : 4
                : 375-380
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute for Immunology and Immunological Diseases, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
                [2 ]Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Hallym University Medical Center, Chuncheon, Korea.
                [3 ]Boditech Med Inc., Chuncheon, Korea.
                [4 ]Department of Immunology and Infection, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Yun-Gyoung Hur, PhD, Institute for Immunology and Immunological Diseases, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea. Tel: 82-2-2228-0884, Fax: 82-2-2227-8298, hur1225@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                10.3349/ymj.2019.60.4.375
                6433574
                30900424
                © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2019

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Boditech Med Inc.;
                Funded by: Yonsei University College of Medicine, CrossRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100008005;
                Categories
                Original Article
                Infectious Disease

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