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      A subacute model of glaucoma based on limbal plexus cautery in pigmented rats

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          Abstract

          Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive functional impairment and degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons, and is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Current management of glaucoma is based on reduction of high intraocular pressure (IOP), one of its most consistent risk factors, but the disease proceeds in almost half of the patients despite such treatments. Several experimental models of glaucoma have been developed in rodents, most of which present shortcomings such as high surgical invasiveness, slow learning curves, damage to the transparency of the optic media which prevents adequate functional assessment, and variable results. Here we describe a novel and simple method to induce ocular hypertension in pigmented rats, based on low-temperature cauterization of the whole circumference of the limbal vascular plexus, a major component of aqueous humor drainage and easily accessible for surgical procedures. This simple, low-cost and efficient method produced a reproducible subacute ocular hypertension with full clinical recovery, followed by a steady loss of retinal ganglion cells and optic axons, accompanied by functional changes detected both by electrophysiological and behavioral methods.

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          Most cited references 55

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          Brn3a as a marker of retinal ganglion cells: qualitative and quantitative time course studies in naive and optic nerve-injured retinas.

          To characterize Brn3a expression in adult albino rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in naïve animals and in animals subjected to complete intraorbital optic nerve transection (IONT) or crush (IONC). Rats were divided into three groups, naïve, IONT, and IONC. Two-, 5-, 9-, or 14-day postlesion (dpl) retinas were examined for immunoreactivity for Brn3a. Before the injury, the RGCs were labeled with Fluorogold (FG; Fluorochrome, Corp. Denver, CO). Brn3a retinal expression was also determined by Western blot analysis. The proportion of RGCs double labeled with Brn3a and FG was determined in radial sections. The temporal course of reduction in Brn3a(+) RGCs and FG(+) RGCs induced by IONC or IONT was assessed by quantifying, in the same wholemounts, the number of surviving FG-labeled RGCs and Brn3a(+)RGCs at the mentioned time points. The total number of FG(+)RGCs was automatically counted in naïve and injured retinas (2 and 5 dpl) or estimated by manual quantification in retinas processed at 9 and 14 dpl. All Brn3a immunopositive RGCs were counted using an automatic routine specifically developed for this purpose. This protocol allowed, as well, the investigation of the spatial distribution of these neurons. Brn3a(+) cells were only present in the ganglion cell layer and showed a spatial distribution comparable to that of FG(+) cells. In the naïve retinal wholemounts the mean (mean +/- SEM; n = 14) total number of FG(+)RGCs and Brn3a(+)RGCs was 80,251 +/- 2,210 and 83,449 +/- 4,541, respectively. Whereas in the radial sections, 92.2% of the FG(+)RGCs were also Brn3a(+), 4.4% of the RGCs were Brn3a(+)FG(-) and 3.4% were FG(+)Brn3a(-). Brn3a expression pattern was maintained in injured RGCs. The temporal course of Brn3a(+)RGC and FG(+)RGC loss induced by IONC or IONT followed a similar trend, but Brn3a(+)RGCs loss was detected earlier than that of FG(+)RGCs. Independent of the marker used to detect the RGCs, it was observed that their loss was quicker and more severe after IONT than after IONC. Brn3a can be used as a reliable, efficient ex vivo marker to identify and quantify RGCs in control and optic nerve-injured retinas.
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            Reduction of Intraocular Pressure and Glaucoma Progression

             Anders Heijl (2002)
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              Early microglia activation in a mouse model of chronic glaucoma.

              Changes in microglial cell activation and distribution are associated with neuronal decline in the central nervous system (CNS), particularly under pathological conditions. Activated microglia converge on the initial site of axonal degeneration in human glaucoma, yet their part in its pathophysiology remains unresolved. To begin with, it is unknown whether microglia activation precedes or is a late consequence of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) neurodegeneration. Here we address this critical element in DBA/2J (D2) mice, an established model of chronic inherited glaucoma, using as a control the congenic substrain DBA/2J Gpnmb(+/SjJ) (D2G), which is not affected by glaucoma. We analyzed the spatial distribution and timecourse of microglial changes in the retina, as well as within the proximal optic nerve prior to and throughout ages when neurodegeneration has been reported. Exclusively in D2 mice, we detected early microglia clustering in the inner central retina and unmyelinated optic nerve regions, with microglia activation peaking by 3 months of age. Between 5 and 8 months of age, activated microglia persisted and concentrated in the optic disc, but also localized to the retinal periphery. Collectively, our findings suggest microglia activation is an early alteration in the retina and optic nerve in D2 glaucoma, potentially contributing to disease onset or progression. Ultimately, detection of microglial activation may have value in early disease diagnosis, while modulation of microglial responses may alter disease progression. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                rafa.lani@biof.ufrj.br
                hilda@biof.ufrj.br
                rlinden@biof.ufrj.br
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                8 November 2019
                8 November 2019
                2019
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2294 473X, GRID grid.8536.8, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, , Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, ; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2294 473X, GRID grid.8536.8, Faculdade de Medicina, , Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, ; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
                Article
                52500
                10.1038/s41598-019-52500-2
                6841973
                31705136
                0db6a495-0d1b-4059-8546-887ffb7e196e
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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                cell death in the nervous system, retina

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