Objective The purpose was to study the monitoring effect and application value of two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (2D-STI) on myocardial function in patients with malignant lymphoma after treatment with anthracyclines. Methods 50 patients with malignant lymphoma treated in our hospital from June 2017 to December 2019 were randomly selected and were treated with anthracyclines to compare the cardiac global longitudinal strain (GLS), global radial strain (GRS), global circumferential strain (GCS), left ventricular twist (LVtw), GLS × LVtw, and changes of atrioventricular inner diameters before and after 3 cycles of treatment. According to the pathological examination results, the accuracy of 2D-STI in the detection of changes in myocardial function of patients was also clarified. Results The absolute values of GLS, GRS and GCS after treatment were significantly lower than those before treatment, with statistical significance ( P < 0.05). The LVtw and GLS × LVtw after 3 cycles of treatment were significantly lower than those before treatment, with statistical significance ( P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the atrioventricular inner diameters of patients before and after treatment, with no statistical significance ( P > 0.05). There was no significant difference between the monitoring results of 2D-STI and the pathological examination results, with no statistical significance ( P > 0.05). Conclusion Anthracyclines can cause some myocardial damage in patients with malignant lymphoma. The application of 2D-STI to monitor the changes in myocardial function of patients can give more accurate monitoring results, facilitating the early implementation of appropriate treatment.