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      Release of eDNA by different life history stages and during spawning activities of laboratory-reared Japanese eels for interpretation of oceanic survey data

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          Abstract

          To assist in detection of offshore spawning activities of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica and facilitate interpretation of results of environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis in their spawning area, we examined the eDNA concentration released by each life history stage of artificially reared Japanese eels in the laboratory using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). We also compared eDNA concentrations between before and after artificially induced spawning activities. eDNA was not detected from three 30 L seawater tanks containing each single fertilized egg, but eDNA was found from other tanks each containing single individuals of larval stages (preleptocephalus and leptocephalus), juvenile stages (glass eel, elver and yellow eel) or adult stage (silver eel). The eDNA concentrations increased in the life history stages, showed a significant difference among all stages, and were positively correlated with the total length and wet weight. Moreover, the eDNA concentration after spawning was 10–200 times higher than that before spawning, which indicated that the spawning events in the ocean would produce relatively high eDNA concentration. These results in the laboratory suggested that eDNA analysis appears to be an effective method for assisting oceanic surveys to estimate the presence and spawning events of the Japanese eel in the spawning area.

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          The ecology of environmental DNA and implications for conservation genetics

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            Critical considerations for the application of environmental DNA methods to detect aquatic species

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              Estimating occupancy and abundance of stream amphibians using environmental DNA from filtered water samples

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                ka030ak@yahoo.co.jp
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                15 April 2019
                15 April 2019
                2019
                : 9
                : 6074
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2149 8846, GRID grid.260969.2, Graduate School of Bioresource Sciences, , Nihon University, 1866 Kameino, ; Fujisawa, Kanagawa 252-0880 Japan
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2149 8846, GRID grid.260969.2, Department of Marine Science and Resources, , Nihon University, 1866 Kameino, ; Fujisawa, Kanagawa 252-0880 Japan
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9967, GRID grid.258622.9, Department of Fisheries Faculty of Agriculture, , Kindai University, 3327-204 Nakamachi, ; Nara, 631-8505 Japan
                [4 ]IRAGO Institute, 377 Ehima-shinden, Tahara, Aichi 441-3605 Japan
                Article
                42641
                10.1038/s41598-019-42641-9
                6465351
                30988485
                0dbe879a-8344-432f-93ab-8243495ee654
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 10 September 2018
                : 1 April 2019
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100001691, MEXT | Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS);
                Award ID: JP18J10466
                Award ID: JP26252030
                Award ID: JP17K19300
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: The Sasakawa Scientific Research Grant (no. 28-531)
                Funded by: research funds from Toyo Suisan Kaisha, Ltd.
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