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      Cardiac Complications during Pregnancy Related to Parity in Women with Congenital Heart Disease


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          Objective: To describe the frequency of cardiac complications during pregnancy related to parity in women with congenital heart defects. Methods: A retrospective tertiary single-center study at the Adult Congenital Heart Disease Centre that followed 307 women with congenital heart disease during the years 1997–2015 in Gothenburg, Sweden. Ma­ternal cardiac complications were noted for each pregnancy using medical and obstetric records. The CARPREG I and modified WHO (mWHO) risk classifications were used. Twin pregnancies, miscarriages before gestational week 13, and pregnancy terminations were excluded. Results: Five hundred seventy-one deliveries and 9 late miscarriages were analyzed. The mean parity was 1.74 per woman (range 1–8). Eighty-four (14.6%) maternal cardiac complications were experienced; arrhythmia (5.7%) and heart failure (4.4%) being the most prevalent, and there was 1 maternal death. Heart failure occurred during the first pregnancy in 12 women (3.9%), in the second pregnancy in 8 women (4.3%), and in the third pregnancy in 4 women (7.7%). CARPREG I and mWHO scores were associated with an increased risk of having a cardiac complication, while parity per se was not associated. The OR for having a maternally uneventful second pregnancy if the first pregnancy was without cardiac complications was 5.47 (95% CI 1.76–16.94) after controlling for CARPREG I and mWHO scores. Conclusion: The risk of severe maternal cardiac complications during pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease is low. In this largest analysis to date with a focus on parity in 307 women, the risk classification predicts the maternal outcome more than parity per se. If the first pregnancy is uneventful, the OR is 5.5 for an uneventful second pregnancy if CARPREG I and mWHO scores remain unchanged.

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          Pregnancy Outcomes in Women With Heart Disease

          Identifying women at high risk is an important aspect of care for women with heart disease.
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            Prediction of complications in pregnant women with cardiac diseases referred to a tertiary center.

            Prediction of adverse maternal and neonatal events in women with heart disease is not well established. We aimed to assess cardiac, obstetrical and neonatal complications in pregnant women with heart disease referred to our tertiary care center and validate a previously proposed risk index.
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              Is the Association Between Parity and Coronary Heart Disease Due to Biological Effects of Pregnancy or Adverse Lifestyle Risk Factors Associated With Child-Rearing?


                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                August 2020
                13 July 2020
                : 145
                : 8
                : 533-542
                aDepartment of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
                bCenter for Adults with Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD), Department of Medicine/Östra, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden
                cDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
                dDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Gothenburg, Sweden
                Author notes
                *Eva Furenäs, Department of Medicine, Östra, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Diagnosv 11, SE–41685 Gothenburg (Sweden), eva.furenas@vgregion.se
                508649 Cardiology 2020;145:533–541
                © 2020 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Pages: 9
                Congenital Heart Disease: Research Article

                General medicine, Neurology, Cardiovascular Medicine, Internal medicine, Nephrology

                Outcome, Parity, Pregnancy


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