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      Synergistic Effect of Mesangial Cell-Induced CXCL1 and TGF-β1 in Promoting Podocyte Loss in IgA Nephropathy

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          Abstract

          Podocyte loss has been reported to relate to disease severity and progression in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). However, the underlying mechanism for its role in IgAN remain unclear. Recent evidence has shown that IgA1 complexes from patients with IgAN could activate mesangial cells to induce soluble mediator excretion, and further injure podocytes through mesangial-podocytic cross-talk. In the present study, we explored the underlying mechanism of mesangial cell-induced podocyte loss in IgAN. We found that IgA1 complexes from IgAN patients significantly up-regulated the expression of CXCL1 and TGF-β1 in mesangial cells compared with healthy controls. Significantly higher urinary levels of CXCL1 and TGF-β1 were also observed in patients with IgAN compared to healthy controls. Moreover, IgAN patients with higher urinary CXCL1 and TGF-β1 presented with severe clinical and pathological manifestations, including higher 24-hour urine protein excretion, lower eGFR and higher cresentic glomeruli proportion. Further in vitro experiments showed that increased podocyte death and reduced podocyte adhesion were induced by mesangial cell conditional medium from IgAN (IgAN-HMCM), as well as rhCXCL1 together with rhTGF-β1. In addition, the over-expression of CXCR2, the receptor for CXCL1, by podocytes was induced by IgAN-HMCM and rhTGF-β1, but not by rhCXCL1. Furthermore, the effect of increased podocyte death and reduced podocyte adhesion induced by IgAN-HMCM and rhCXCL1 and rhTGF-β1 was rescued partially by a blocking antibody against CXCR2. Moreover, we observed the expression of CXCR2 in urine exfoliated podocytes in IgAN patients. Our present study implied that IgA1 complexes from IgAN patients could up-regulate the secretion of CXCL1 and TGF-β1 in mesangial cells. Additionally, the synergistic effect of CXCL1 and TGF-β1 further induced podocyte death and adhesion dysfunction in podocytes via CXCR2. This might be a potential mechanism for podocyte loss observed in IgAN.

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          Most cited references 35

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          IgA nephropathy.

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            The chemokine receptor CXCR2 controls positioning of oligodendrocyte precursors in developing spinal cord by arresting their migration.

            Spinal cord oligodendrocytes originate in the ventricular zone and subsequently migrate to white matter, stop, proliferate, and differentiate. Here we demonstrate a role for the chemokine CXCL1 and its receptor CXCR2 in patterning the developing spinal cord. Signaling through CXCR2, CXCL1 inhibited oligodendrocyte precursor migration. The migrational arrest was rapid, reversible, concentration dependent, and reflected enhanced cell/substrate interactions. White matter expression of CXCL1 was temporo-spatially regulated. Developing CXCR2 null spinal cords contained reduced oligodendrocytes, abnormally concentrated at the periphery. In slice preparations, CXCL1 inhibited embryonic oligodendrocyte precursor migration, and widespread dispersal of postnatal precursors occurred in the absence of CXCR2 signaling. These data suggest that population of presumptive white matter by oligodendrocyte precursors is dependent on localized expression of CXCL1.
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              Urinary podocyte loss is a more specific marker of ongoing glomerular damage than proteinuria.

              Podocyte loss contributes to the development of glomerulosclerosis. Although podocyte detachment has been recognized as a new mechanism of podocyte loss in glomerular diseases, its time course and relationship to disease activity are not known. Urinary excretion of viable podocytes was quantified in two models of transient glomerular injury, i.e., rats with puromycin aminonucleoside-induced nephrosis (PAN) and mesangioproliferative nephropathy (anti-Thy 1.1 nephritis model), as well as in a model of continuous glomerular injury, i.e., hypertensive nephropathy (5/6-nephrectomy model), and in aging rats. The number of glomerular Wilm's tumor (WT)-1-positive podocytes and the glomerular expression of cell-cycle proteins in vivo were assessed. Urinary podocyte loss occurred in both primary (PAN) and secondary (anti-Thy 1.1 nephritis) in parallel to the onset of proteinuria. However, subsequently proteinuria persisted despite remission of podocyturia. In continuous glomerular injury, i.e., after 5/6-nephrectomy, podocyturia paralleled the course of proteinuria and of systemic hypertension, whereas no podocyturia became detectable during normal aging (up to 12 mo). Despite podocyte detachment of varying degrees, no decrease in glomerular podocyte counts (i.e., WT-1 positive nuclei) was noted in either disease model. Podocyturia in the PAN and anti-Thy 1.1 nephritis model was preceded by entry of glomerular podocytes into the cell cycle, i.e., cyclin D1, cdc2, and/or proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression. Podocyturia is a widespread phenomenon in glomerular disease and not simply a reflection of proteinuria because it is limited to phases of ongoing glomerular injury. The data suggest that podocyturia may become a more sensitive means to assess the activity of glomerular damage than proteinuria.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2013
                30 August 2013
                : 8
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China
                [2 ]Peking University Institute of Nephrology, Beijing, China
                [3 ]Key Laboratory of Renal Disease, Ministry of Health of China, Beijing, China
                [4 ]Key Laboratory of Chronic Kidney Disease Prevention and Treatment (Peking University), Ministry of Education, Beijing, China
                INSERM, France
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: LZ QZ SS LL JL HZ. Performed the experiments: LZ QZ. Analyzed the data: LZ QZ SS LL JL HZ. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: LZ QZ SS LL JL HZ. Wrote the manuscript: LZ QZ SS LL JL HZ.

                [☯]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                PONE-D-13-10001
                10.1371/journal.pone.0073425
                3758267
                24023680

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funding
                This work was supported by the National Science Foundation for Youths of China (Grant No. 81000297); the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (973 program, No.2012CB517700); the National Natural Science Foundation for Innovative Research Groups of China (Grant No. 81021004); and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7131016). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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