Background/Aims: Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is known to attenuate glomerulosclerosis in experimental models of renal failure. We investigated whether this is mediated by reduction of oxidative stress. Methods: Effects of MMF on oxidative stress are studied in an experimental rat model (NA model) involving unilateral nephrectomy and two intravenous injections with adriamycin (2 mg/kg). Rats are sacrificed after 2 and 6 weeks. Glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial lesions are demonstrated by histological techniques. Presence of macrophages/monocytes (ED1) and myofibroblasts (α-SMA) is demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. Oxidative stress is evaluated by enzymatic measurements (AOE), spectrofluorometry (TBARS), immunohistochemistry (MDA and HNE) and histology (ferric iron deposition). Results: The NA model shows proteinuria, hypercholesterolemia, beginning glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial sclerosis and tubular dilatation, glomerular, periglomerular and interstitial presence of α-SMA and increased presence of macrophages/monocytes after 6 weeks. Oxidative stress in renal cortex is apparent (increased cortex TBARS concentration, increased glomerular presence of MDA and HNE, decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes, ferric iron deposition in proximal tubules) after 6 weeks. MMF administration results in a decrease of glomerulosclerosis, interstitial sclerosis, glomerular and periglomerular expression of α-SMA and the number of ED1-positive cells in tubulointerstitium and glomeruli. Proteinuria and cholesterolemia are not decreased. TBARS level, and activities of catalase, Mn and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase as well as the presence of ferric iron in the proximal tubules are not changed by MMF treatment. Cortex activity of glutathione peroxidase returns to normal. Conclusion: MMF has a favorable effect on glomerular and interstitial fibrosis in the NA model of kidney disease, but not on proteinuria and cholesterolemia. Improvement of fibrosis cannot be explained by major changes in oxidative stress or antioxidant defense.