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      Changes of Rat Kidney AQP2 and Na,K-ATPase mRNA Expression in Lithium-Induced Nephrogenic Diabetes insipidus

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          Background/Aim: In a rat model, lithium treatment is associated with polyuria and severe downregulation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) protein in the inner medulla (IM) or in the whole kidney. However, it is not known (1) to what extent this downregulation occurs at the mRNA level; (2) whether the main sodium transporter of the nephron, Na,K-ATPase, is regulated in parallel at the mRNA level, and (3) whether lithium treatment induces zonal or segmental differences in AQP2 and Na,K-ATPase mRNA levels. Method: We examined the changes in mRNA expression levels for AQP2 and Na,K-ATPase in kidney cortex, inner stripe of the outer medulla (ISOM), and IM of rats treated with lithium orally using semiquantitative Northern blot analyses and in situ hybridization at the light and electron microscopic levels. Results: The AQP2 mRNA levels decreased significantly (p < 0.01) in lithium-treated rats to 37 ± 4% in the cortex, to 17 ± 4% in the ISOM, and to 23 ± 5% in the IM, while the Na,K-ATPase mRNA levels were not altered in the cortex, but were significantly (p < 0.05) altered in the ISOM (144 ± 15% after 10 days, but 68 ± 4% after 4 weeks) and in the IM (63 ± 8% after 10 days, but normalized after 4 weeks). In situ hybridization showed reduced levels of AQP2 mRNA in all zones of the kidney, but the Na,K-ATPase mRNA expressions were slightly decreased only in IM collecting ducts. At the ultrastructural level, principal cells in the IM collecting ducts showed slight hypertrophy, but no cell damage after 4 weeks of lithium treatment. The results demonstrate substantial downregulation of AQP2 at the mRNA level throughout the collecting duct in experimental lithium-induced nephrogenic dabetes insipidus and moderately decreased Na,K-ATPase mRNA levels in the ISOM and in the IM. Conclusion: The results suggest that decreased mRNA expressions of AQP2 and Na,K-ATPase contribute to the development of lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

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          Electrical conductivity measurements from the GISP2 and GRIP Greenlandice cores

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            Genes encoding chitinase-antifreeze proteins are regulated by cold and expressed by all cell types in winter rye shoots.

            One group of antifreeze proteins (AFPs) is composed of two chitinases that accumulate in the apoplast of winter rye leaves during cold acclimation. In this study, the 28- and 35-kDa chitinase-AFPs were localized in nonacclimated and cold-acclimated rye leaves by immunoelectron microscopy with an antiserum produced against the purified winter rye 35-kDa chitinase-AFP. In cold-acclimated winter rye leaves, labelled chitinase-AFPs were abundant in the walls of epidermal, parenchymal sheath and mesophyll cells and xylem vessels, while less label was present in walls of vascular parenchyma cells. In contrast, chitinase labelling was essentially absent in the nonacclimated cells except in xylem vessels. As shown by RNA blotting, the transcripts of chitinase-AFPs accumulated to a high level in rye leaves during cold acclimation, to a lesser extent in crowns and were not detectable in roots. mRNA transcripts of the 28-kDa chitinase-AFP were localized in rye leaves by in situ hybridization. The chitinase-AFP transcripts were found in the same cell types as the protein itself. We conclude that all metabolically active cell types in cold-acclimated winter rye leaves and crowns are able to synthesize chitinase-AFPs and secrete them into adjacent cell walls, where they may interact with ice to delay its propagation through the plant and modify its growth.
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              Targeted proteomics in the kidney using ensembles of antibodies


                Author and article information

                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                May 2004
                17 November 2004
                : 97
                : 1
                : e1-e16
                aWater and Salt Research Center and Department of Cell Biology, Institute of Anatomy, University of Aarhus, and bInstitute of Molecular and Structural Biology, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark
                77593 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2004;97:e1–e16
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 11, Tables: 1, References: 30, Pages: 1
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/77593
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