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      The Outcome of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery among Patients Hospitalized with Acute Coronary Syndrome: The Euro Heart Survey of Acute Coronary Syndrome Experience


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          Aim: To determine the frequency and outcomes of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery in patients with a wide spectrum of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Methods and Results: We prospectively enrolled 10,484 ACS patients from 103 hospitals in 25 countries across Europe and the Mediterranean basin. Of the 10,204 patients with complete data, 460 (4.5%) underwent CABG while in hospital; 3.4% had ST elevation ACS, 5.4% had non-ST elevation ACS, and 4.4% had undetermined ECG ACS (p = 0.001 for non-ST elevation ACS vs. others). In general, patients who underwent CABG were more likely to be males, to have diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, a positive family history of premature coronary disease, and prior angina pectoris, but had less often prior heart failure. While in hospital, all CABG patients underwent coronary angiography and 15.2% also underwent percutaneous revascularization, as compared with 51.3 and 33.1% in the remaining patients, respectively. The in-hospital mortality was 3.7% for ACS patients who underwent CABG and 4.8% for non-CABG ACS patients (p = nonsignificant) with an adjusted odds ratio of in-hospital death for CABG patients of 1.00 (95% CI 0.59–1.61). Conclusions: Approximately 4.5% of ACS patients underwent CABG during their initial hospitalization, with a greater likelihood among non-ST elevation ACS patients. Of the CABG patients, 15.2% also underwent percutaneous revascularization. The outcome of CABG patients was as good as non-CABG patients, indicating that CABG remains an effective and safe means to achieve revascularization among ACS patients in current clinical practice.

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          A prospective survey of the characteristics, treatments and outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes in Europe and the Mediterranean basin; the Euro Heart Survey of Acute Coronary Syndromes (Euro Heart Survey ACS).

          To better delineate the characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in representative countries across Europe and the Mediterranean basin, and to examine adherence to current guidelines. We performed a prospective survey (103 hospitals, 25 countries) of 10484 patients with a discharge diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes. The initial diagnosis was ST elevation ACS in 42.3%, non-ST elevation ACS in 51.2%, and undetermined electrocardiogram ACS in 6.5%. The discharge diagnosis was Q wave myocardial infarction in 32.8%, non-Q wave myocardial infarction in 25.3%, and unstable angina in 41.9%. The use of aspirin, beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and heparins for patients with ST elevation ACS were 93.0%, 77.8%, 62.1%, and 86.8%, respectively, with corresponding rates of 88.5%, 76.6%, 55.8%, and 83.9% for non-ST elevation ACS patients. Coronary angiography, percutaneous coronary interventions, and coronary bypass surgery were performed in 56.3%, 40.4%, and 3.4% of ST elevation ACS patients, respectively, with corresponding rates of 52.0%, 25.4%, and 5.4% for non-ST elevation ACS patients. Among patients with ST elevation ACS, 55.8% received reperfusion treatment; 35.1% fibrinolytic therapy and 20.7% primary percutaneous coronary interventions. The in-hospital mortality of patients with ST elevation ACS was 7.0%, for non-ST elevation ACS 2.4%, and for undetermined electrocardiogram ACS 11.8%. At 30 days, mortality was 8.4%, 3.5%, and 13.3%, respectively. This survey demonstrates the discordance between existing guidelines for ACS and current practice across a broad region in Europe and the Mediterranean basin and more extensively reflects the outcomes of ACS in real practice in this region.
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            Frequency, characteristics, and outcome of patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes with undetermined electrocardiographic patterns

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              Role of cardiac surgery in the hospital phase management of patients treated with primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction.

              Although cardiac surgery is performed in approximately 10% of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients undergoing a primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) reperfusion strategy before discharge, the indications for and timing of operative revascularization, and the short- and long-term outcomes after surgery have not been characterized. In the prospective, controlled Primary Angioplasty in Myocardial Infarction-2 trial, cardiac catheterization was performed in 1,100 patients within 12 hours of onset of AMI at 34 centers, followed by primary PTCA when appropriate. Cardiac surgery was performed before hospital discharge in 120 patients (10.9%), electively in 42.6%, and on an urgent or emergent basis in 57.4%. Surgery was performed in 6.1% of 982 patients after primary PTCA (although emergently for failed PTCA in only 4 cases [0.4%]), and in 53 of 118 patients (44.9%) not undergoing primary PTCA. Patients requiring surgery were older, and more frequently had diabetes and 3-vessel disease than those managed nonoperatively. Internal mammary artery grafts were placed in only 31% of patients. In-hospital mortality was 6.4% in patients undergoing urgent/emergent surgery, 2.0% after elective surgery, and 2.6% in patients not undergoing surgery (p = NS). After multivariate correction for baseline risk factors, early and late survival free of reinfarction were similar in patients undergoing versus not undergoing in-hospital cardiac surgery. Thus, the appropriate use of coronary artery bypass graft surgery in the peri-infarction period is an integral component of the primary PTCA approach, and is frequently used to optimize the prognosis of a high-risk AMI cohort with unfavorable baseline features. The implications for the performance of primary PTCA in AMI at centers without on-site surgical facilities are discussed.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                November 2004
                24 November 2004
                : 103
                : 1
                : 44-47
                aDepartment of Cardiology, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva, and bNeufeld Cardiac Research Institute, Tel Hashomer, Israel<footref rid="foot01"> 1</footref>
                81851 Cardiology 2005;103:44–47
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Tables: 5, References: 7, Pages: 4
                Coronary Care


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