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      HIV-associated lipodystrophy: a review from a Brazilian perspective

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          Abstract

          The prognosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals has dramatically improved worldwide since the introduction of highly antiretroviral therapy. Nevertheless, along with the decrease in mortality, several body modifications not initially related to HIV infection have been reported. Disorders in lipid and glucose metabolism, accompanied by body shape abnormalities and alterations in fat distribution, began to be described. A syndrome, named “HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome”, was coined to classify these clinical spectrum aspects. This syndrome involves not only metabolic alterations but also fat redistribution, with lipoatrophy due to subcutaneous fat loss (predominantly in the face and lower limbs) and lipohypertrophy related to central fat gain. These changes in body shape are very important to be recognized, as they are associated with worse morbidity and mortality. Self-esteem difficulties related to body alterations might lead to treatment failures due to medication adherence problems. Moreover, these alterations have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Therefore, it is extremely important to identify this syndrome early in order to provide an even better quality of life for this population, as the clinical approach is not easy. Treatment change, medications to treat dyslipidemia, and surgical intervention are instruments to be used to try to correct these abnormalities. The aim of this study is to review clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of body shape and metabolic complications of HIV infection from a Brazilian perspective, a medium income country with a large number of patients on antiretroviral therapy.

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          Most cited references 63

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          A syndrome of peripheral lipodystrophy, hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance in patients receiving HIV protease inhibitors.

          To describe a syndrome of peripheral lipodystrophy (fat wasting of the face, limbs and upper trunk), hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance in patients receiving potent HIV protease inhibitor therapy. Cross-sectional study. Outpatient clinic of a university teaching hospital. HIV-infected patients either receiving at least one protease inhibitor (n=116) or protease inhibitor-naive (n=32), and healthy men (n=47). Lipodystrophy was assessed by physical examination and questionnaire and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fasting triglyceride, cholesterol, free fatty acid, glucose, insulin, C-peptide and fructosamine levels, other metabolic parameters, CD4 lymphocyte counts, and HIV RNA load were also assessed. HIV protease inhibitor-naive patients had similar body composition to healthy men. HIV protease inhibitor therapy was associated with substantially lower total body fat (13.2 versus 18.7 kg in protease inhibitor-naive patients; P=0.005), and significantly higher total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Lipodystrophy was observed clinically in 74 (64%) protease inhibitor recipients after a mean 13.9 months and 1(3%) protease inhibitor-naive patient (P=0.0001). Fat loss occurred in all regions except the abdomen after a median 10 months. Patients with lipodystrophy experienced a relative weight loss of 0.5 kg per month and had significantly higher triglyceride, cholesterol, insulin and C-peptide levels and were more insulin-resistant than protease inhibitor recipients without lipodystrophy. Patients receiving ritonavir and saquinavir in combination had significantly lower body fat, higher lipids and shorter time to lipodystrophy than patients receiving indinavir. Three (2%) patients developed new or worsening diabetes mellitus. A syndrome of peripheral lipodystrophy, hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance is a common complication of HIV protease inhibitors. Diabetes mellitus is relatively uncommon.
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            Epidemiological evidence for cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients and relationship to highly active antiretroviral therapy.

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              Coronary heart disease in HIV-infected individuals.

              It is currently unknown whether there is an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with HIV infection. In addition, the contribution of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to CHD risk has not been quantified. We reviewed administrative claims data for HIV-infected and -uninfected individuals from the California Medicaid population and compared the incidence of and relative risk (RR) for CHD using log-linear regression analyses between groups. The association between exposure to ART and CHD incidence was also assessed. Of 3,083,209 individuals analyzed, 28,513 were HIV-infected. The incidence of CHD among young men (up to age 34) and women (up to age 44) with HIV infection was significantly higher than that among non-HIV-infected individuals. The covariate-adjusted RR for the development of CHD in individuals receiving ART compared with those not receiving ART was 2.06 (P < 0.001) in HIV-infected individuals aged 18-33 years. There were no statistically significant associations between ART exposure and CHD in other age groups. CHD incidence appears accelerated among young HIV-infected individuals. Strategies to reduce CHD risk should be incorporated into HIV primary care.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2014
                17 July 2014
                : 10
                : 559-566
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Infectious Disease Department, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
                [2 ]School of Medicine, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil
                [3 ]School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Eduardo Sprinz, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2350, Sala 700, Porto Alegre, RS 90035-003, Brazil, Tel/Fax +55 51 3359 8152, Email eduardo.sprinz@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                tcrm-10-559
                10.2147/TCRM.S35075
                4108257
                © 2014 Alves et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Medicine

                brazil, dyslipidemia, haart, lipohypertrophy, lipodystrophy, lipoatrophy

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