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      Inputs of trace elements in agricultural soils via phosphate fertilizers in European countries.

      The Science of the Total Environment
      Agriculture, Arsenic, analysis, Environmental Monitoring, Europe, Fertilizers, Metals, Heavy, Phosphates, Soil Pollutants

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          Mineral fertilizers are sources of diffuse metal enrichment of agricultural soils. A survey of phosphate fertilizers (blends or raw) sold on the European market was undertaken to quantify metal input via fertilizers in European agricultural soils. A total of 196 phosphate fertilizer samples from 12 European countries were analyzed for trace metals. Analytical quality was controlled with a certified rock phosphate sample. The average metal concentrations (mg kg(-1)) in the fertilizers were 14.8 (Ni), 7.4 (Cd), 166 (Zn), 2.9 (Pb), 7.6 (As), and 89.5 (Cr). The trace metal concentrations were positively correlated with the P concentrations confirming that the rock phosphate was the major source of these elements. Lowest metal concentrations were generally found in samples from Scandinavian countries. At average P use, the trace metal input via fertilizers was similar to or even larger than the metal input via atmospheric deposition in European agricultural soils for Cd, As, and Cr, whereas the reverse was true for Zn, Ni, and Pb. The input of Cd in European agricultural soils has decreased from previously estimated values and the soil Cd mass balance was close to steady state on an average basis.

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          Agriculture,Arsenic,analysis,Environmental Monitoring,Europe,Fertilizers,Metals, Heavy,Phosphates,Soil Pollutants


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