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      Filamentous sieve element proteins are able to limit phloem mass flow, but not phytoplasma spread

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          The lack of correlation between sieve element filament formation, sieve element occlusion, and phytoplasma titre hints at an unknown role for filamentous sieve element proteins in plant defence.


          In Fabaceae, dispersion of forisomes—highly ordered aggregates of sieve element proteins—in response to phytoplasma infection was proposed to limit phloem mass flow and, hence, prevent pathogen spread. In this study, the involvement of filamentous sieve element proteins in the containment of phytoplasmas was investigated in non-Fabaceae plants. Healthy and infected Arabidopsis plants lacking one or two genes related to sieve element filament formation— AtSEOR1 (At3g01680), AtSEOR2 (At3g01670), and AtPP2-A1 (At4g19840)—were analysed. TEM images revealed that phytoplasma infection induces phloem protein filament formation in both the wild-type and mutant lines. This result suggests that, in contrast to previous hypotheses, sieve element filaments can be produced independently of AtSEOR1 and AtSEOR2 genes. Filament presence was accompanied by a compensatory overexpression of sieve element protein genes in infected mutant lines in comparison with wild-type lines. No correlation was found between phloem mass flow limitation and phytoplasma titre, which suggests that sieve element proteins are involved in defence mechanisms other than mechanical limitation of the pathogen.

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          Most cited references 69

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          Processing of gene expression data generated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR.

          Quantitative real-time PCR represents a highly sensitive and powerful technique for the quantitation of nucleic acids. It has a tremendous potential for the high-throughput analysis of gene expression in research and routine diagnostics. However, the major hurdle is not the practical performance of the experiments themselves but rather the efficient evaluation and the mathematical and statistical analysis of the enormous amount of data gained by this technology, as these functions are not included in the software provided by the manufacturers of the detection systems. In this work, we focus on the mathematical evaluation and analysis of the data generated by quantitative real-time PCR, the calculation of the final results, the propagation of experimental variation of the measured values to the final results, and the statistical analysis. We developed a Microsoft Excel-based software application coded in Visual Basic for Applications, called Q-Gene, which addresses these points. Q-Gene manages and expedites the planning, performance, and evaluation of quantitative real-time PCR experiments, as well as the mathematical and statistical analysis, storage, and graphical presentation of the data. The Q-Gene software application is a tool to cope with complex quantitative real-time PCR experiments at a high-throughput scale and considerably expedites and rationalizes the experimental setup, data analysis, and data management while ensuring highest reproducibility.
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            The phloem, a miracle of ingenuity

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              Potassium transporters in plants--involvement in K+ acquisition, redistribution and homeostasis.

              Potassium is a major plant nutrient which has to be accumulated in great quantity by roots and distributed throughout the plant and within plant cells. Membrane transport of potassium can be mediated by potassium channels and secondary potassium transporters. Plant potassium transporters are present in three families of membrane proteins: the K(+) uptake permeases (KT/HAK/KUP), the K(+) transporter (Trk/HKT) family and the cation proton antiporters (CPA). This review will discuss the contribution of members of each family to potassium acquisition, redistribution and homeostasis.

                Author and article information

                J Exp Bot
                J. Exp. Bot
                Journal of Experimental Botany
                Oxford University Press (UK )
                15 June 2017
                22 June 2017
                22 June 2017
                : 68
                : 13
                : 3673-3688
                [1 ]Department of Agricultural, Food, Environmental and Animal Sciences, University of Udine, via delle Scienze, Udine, Italy
                [2 ]Institute of General Botany and Plant Physiology, Friedrich-Schiller-University of Jena, Dornburgerstrasse, Jena, Germany
                [3 ]Department of Life Sciences, University of Parma, via Usberti, Parma, Italy
                [4 ]Department of Phytopathology and Applied Zoology, Justus Liebig University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring, Giessen, Germany
                Author notes
                © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Pages: 16
                Research Papers
                Plant-Environment Interactions


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