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      Recycling of inorganic waste in monolithic and cellular glass‐based materials for structural and functional applications

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          The stabilization of inorganic waste of various nature and origin, in glasses, has been a key strategy for environmental protection for the last decades. When properly formulated, glasses may retain many inorganic contaminants permanently, but it must be acknowledged that some criticism remains, mainly concerning costs and energy use. As a consequence, the sustainability of vitrification largely relies on the conversion of waste glasses into new, usable and marketable glass‐based materials, in the form of monolithic and cellular glass‐ceramics. The effective conversion in turn depends on the simultaneous control of both starting materials and manufacturing processes. While silica‐rich waste favours the obtainment of glass, iron‐rich wastes affect the functionalities, influencing the porosity in cellular glass‐based materials as well as catalytic, magnetic, optical and electrical properties. Engineered formulations may lead to important reductions of processing times and temperatures, in the transformation of waste‐derived glasses into glass‐ceramics, or even bring interesting shortcuts. Direct sintering of wastes, combined with recycled glasses, as an example, has been proven as a valid low‐cost alternative for glass‐ceramic manufacturing, for wastes with limited hazardousness. The present paper is aimed at providing an up‐to‐date overview of the correlation between formulations, manufacturing technologies and properties of most recent waste‐derived, glass‐based materials. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Microwave thermal inertisation of asbestos containing waste and its recycling in traditional ceramics.

          Asbestos was widely used as a building material prior to the 1970's. It is well known that asbestos is a health hazard and its progressive elimination is a priority for pollution prevention. Asbestos can be transformed to non-hazardous silicate phases by microwave thermal treatment. The aim of this investigation is to describe the microwave inertization process of asbestos containing waste (ACW) and its recycling in porcelain stoneware tiles, porous single-fired wall tiles and ceramic bricks following industrial manufacture procedure. Inertised asbestos powder was added in the percentages of 1, 3, and 5 wt.% to commercially available compositions and then fired following industrial thermal cycles. Water absorption and linear shrinkage of the obtained industrial products do not present significant variations with additions up to 5 wt.% of microwave inertised ACW.
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            Vitrification of fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerator.

            Fly ash from municipal solid wastes (MSW) incinerators in Korea contains a large amount of toxic materials and requires pertinent treatments. However, since fly ash in Korea has a high chlorine concentration, it is difficult to apply cementation and chemical treatment techniques. In this study, we report the vitrification of fly ash along with the properties of the glasses and leaching characteristics of heavy metal ions. Fly ash can be vitrified by melting at 1500 degrees C for 30 min with the addition of >5 wt.% of SiO2. Glasses showed Vickers hardness of 4000-5000 MPa, bending strength of 60-90 MPa and indentation fracture toughness of approximately 0.9 MPa m(1/2). Glasses also showed the excellent resistance against leaching of heavy metal ions with Cd2+ <0.04 ppm, Cr3+ <0.02 ppm, Cu2+ <0.04 ppm and Pb2+ <0.2 ppm. These results indicate that the vitrification technique is effective for the stabilization and recycling of toxic incinerator fly ash.
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              Production of coloured glass-ceramics from incinerator ash using thermal plasma technology.

               T Cheng,  M. Huang,  C C Tzeng (2007)
              Incineration is a major treatment process for municipal solid waste in Taiwan. It is estimated that over 1.5 Mt of incinerator ash are produced annually. This study proposes using thermal plasma technology to treat incinerator ash. Sintered glass-ceramics were produced using quenched vitrified slag with colouring agents added. The experimental results showed that the major crystalline phases developed in the sintered glass-ceramics were gehlenite and wollastonite, but many other secondary phases also appeared depending on the colouring agents added. The physical/mechanical properties, chemical resistance and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure of the coloured glass-ceramics were satisfactory. The glass-ceramic products obtained from incinerator ash treated with thermal plasma technology have great potential for building applications.

                Author and article information

                J Chem Technol Biotechnol
                J Chem Technol Biotechnol
                Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology
                John Wiley & Sons, Ltd (Chichester, UK )
                13 April 2016
                July 2016
                : 91
                : 7 ( doiID: 10.1002/jctb.2016.91.issue-7 )
                : 1946-1961
                [ 1 ] Department of Industrial EngineeringUniversity of Padova Italy
                [ 2 ] Department of CeramicUniversity of Cukurova Turkey
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence to: E Bernardo, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova, Italy. Email enrico.bernardo@
                © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Pages: 16
                Funded by: European Community's Seventh Framework Programme
                Funded by: European Community's Horizon 2020 Programme
                Funded by: Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (Tübitak)
                Funded by: KACST (King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, KACST, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)
                Custom metadata
                July 2016
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:4.9.5 mode:remove_FC converted:21.10.2016


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